criminal law and procedure

Investor Protection Guide: Advance Fee Fraud

Advance fee frauds involve victims paying money in the hope of receiving something of greater value. This type of fraud takes on a myriad of forms, but they share some characteristics in common. Defrauders will often reach out to an investor and...

Investor Protection Guide: Affinity Fraud

Affinity fraud is not a particular type of fraud but refers to all frauds targeted towards members of an identifiable group of individuals such as those with a common religion, ethnic heritage, background, or interests. The perpetrators of affinity...

Investor Protection Guide: Internet Fraud

The Internet can serve as an efficient tool for investors, but it is also an excellent tool for defrauders. The Internet allows individuals or companies to reach tens of thousands of people by building a web site, posting a message on an online...

Investor Protection Guide: Investment Newsletters

Companies may pay people to write online newsletters recommending the stocks of these companies. Federal securities laws require the newsletters to disclose who paid for their product, the amount, and the type of payment. Many fraudsters fail to do so...

Investor Protection Guide: Micro-cap Stock Fraud ("Pump and Dump")

"Pump and Dump" is a type of stock fraud involving the use of false or misleading statements to increase stock prices and then sell the inflated stocks to the public. Stocks of microcap companies, which have low capitalizations and limited assets, are...

Investor Protection Guide: Prime Bank Schemes

Prime bank fraud is a type of investment scheme that promises extremely high yields over a short period of time. Individuals claim that they have access to secret financial products which they can buy at a discount and sell at a premium. In reality,...

Investor Protection Guide: Promissory Note Scam

In a promissory note scam, the individuals perpetrating the scam often stay behind the scenes. They persuade others to sell promissory notes by promising them large commissions. The individuals who sell the promissory notes to investors often rely on...

Investor Protection Guide: Pyramid Scheme

A pyramid scheme is an unsustainable, illegal business model where investment returns are typically from principals of investments or membership fees instead from the underlying investment gains. It is often marketed as a foolproof way to turn a small...

Invidious discrimination

Treating a class of persons unequally in a manner that is malicious, hostile, or damaging.

Involuntary intoxication

A defense to criminal liability that one committed a particular unlawful act while under the influence of intoxicating substances ingested involuntarily that rendered the individual incapable of understanding the nature of the acts committed.

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