criminal law and procedure

necessity defense

A necessity defense is a defense to liability for unlawful activity where the conduct cannot be avoided and one is justified in the particular conduct because it will prevent the occurrence of a harm that is more serious.

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newly discovered evidence

Newly discovered evidence, or after-discovered evidence, is evidence which existed at the time of the original trial but was only discovered after the conclusion of the trial. Newly discovered evidence is an issue predominantly in criminal proceedings...

no-knock warrant

A no-knock warrant is a search warrant authorizing police officers to enter certain premises without first knocking and announcing their presence or purpose prior to entering the premises. Such warrants are issued where an entry pursuant to...

nolo contendere

Nolo contendere means "no contest." This phrase translates from the Latin as "I do not wish to contend."

In a criminal proceeding, a defendant may enter a plea of nolo contendere, in which the defendant does not accept or...

non-testifying expert witnesses

A non-testifying expert witness is an individual possessing specialized knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to a particular case “who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or to prepare...

nullum crimen sine lege

Nullum crimen sine lege is Latin for "no crime without law." The phrase reflects the principle in criminal law and international criminal law that a person cannot or should not face criminal punishment except for an act that was criminalized...

O.R.

O.R. is an abbreviation for “own recognizance.” O.R. refers to the release of a criminal defendant without posting bail, based on a written promise by the defendant to appear in court when required to do so.

Courts and...

objection

An objection is a formal protest raised by a party or counsel during a legal proceeding asserting that an error, contrary to the rules of evidence or other procedural law, has been or will be made. The purpose of an objection is to provide...

obstruction of justice

Obstruction of justice broadly refers to actions by individuals that illegally prevent or influence the outcome of a government proceeding. While the quintessential example of obstruction of justice involves tampering in a judicial proceeding...

omission

Omission is refraining from acting or disclosing, see Brown v. Standard Casket Mfg. Co..

It can be used in various situations:

"Failure to disclose the origin of a recording” in criminal law is defined as following: “...

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