An overhaul of the education system that requires states to establish challenging academic standards for all schools, to test students regularly to ensure they are meeting those standards, and to employ teachers who are highly qualified. Signed into law by President George W. Bush, NCLB uses a controversial system of incentives and penalties to achieve its goals.
A phrase most famously used by Supreme Court Justice Black in the case of Everson v. Board of Education. In discussing the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, Justice Black said that the clause erected a "wall of separation between church and state." He explained that this means, among other things, that the government cannot participate in the affairs of a religious group, set up a church, aid or prefer one religion over another, or aid or prefer religion over nonreligion.
The U.S. Supreme Court decision that outlawed segregation in public education by finding that separate public schools for blacks and whites were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional. The decision was the beginning of the end of official racial segregation in all facets of public life.
- Full text: Brown v. Board of Education (Nolo)
The broad term used to describe the educational system available for children (ages three to 21) with disabilities, including physical, mental, and learning disabilities See: individualized education program
A requirement of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that school districts place disabled children in the classroom setting that best meets their individual needs, rather than automatically assume that a special class or school is the best option. In many cases, the least restrictive environment, or LRE, is a regular classroom with nondisabled children (also known as mainstreaming), with additional services provided to help the disabled child succeed at school.
The process provided under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to evaluate the educational needs of and develop an academic plan for students with disabilities. It refers both to 1) the meetings where the school district determines whether or not a child is eligible for special education services and if so, the plan for the coming year, and 2) the annual detailed written description of the program and services to help children with special needs succeed in school.
A requirement of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act that a child with disabilities is entitled to an educational program (including classroom setting, teaching strategies, and services) that is individually tailored to meet his or her unique needs.