Pregnancy Discrimination Act

An amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed in 1978 to prohibit discrimination against employees based on pregnancy, childbirth, or pregnancy related medical conditions. The Act amended 42 U.S.C. § 2000e to...


Presenteeism is a term coined by economists to describe the practice of employees who come to work even though they are sick and thus exhibit decreased productivity and risk spreading the infection in the workplace. Researchers have estimated...

Prisoners' rights


Federal and state laws govern the establishment and administration of prisons as well as the rights of the inmates. Although prisoners do not have full constitutional rights, they are protected by the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against...

Probationary period

In some jobs (ie. public sector or union positions), refers to the period of time that an individual must work before that person will acquire full rights.

Progressive discipline

A process for dealing with employee behavior and performance that involves higher and higher levels of discipline when an employee's performance fails to improve after the employer gives the employee notice. This typically including a verbal warning....

protected characteristic

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryIn employment law, a trait that may not be the basis of employment decisions. Under federal law, protected characteristics include race, color, national origin, religion, gender (including pregnancy),...



An abbreviation for qualified domestic relations order. See qualified domestic relations order.

Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO)


Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA"), a judgment, decree, or order regarding child support, alimony, or marital property rights that assigns the right to receive all or part of the benefits payable under a pension plan...

Qualified plan


See qualified retirement plan.

Qualified retirement plan


A retirement plan, such as a 401(k) plan, an employee annuity plan (26 U.S.C. § 403(a)), an individual retirement account (26 U.S.C. § 408(a)), or a governmental deferred compensation plan (26 U.S.C. § 457), that satisfies requirements of the...