The Chinese Exclusion Act, signed into law on May 6, 1882, by President Chester A. Arthur, effectively terminated Chinese immigration for ten years and prohibited Chinese from becoming US citizens. All Chinese persons- except travelers, merchants, teachers, students, and those born in the United States-were barred from entering the United States and Chinese residents, regardless of how long they legally worked in the United States, were ineligible to become naturalized citizens. The law was repealed by the Magnuson Act in 1943 during World War II.
A federal law that gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the power to regulate the contents of tobacco products, disclose the ingredients of these products, and prohibit marketing campaigns that target children. Under this law, the agency can lower the amount of nicotine allowed in tobacco products, ban candy flavorings that appeal to kids, and block labels such "low tar" and "light." The law also requires tobacco companies to use large, graphic warnings on their cartons.
A consumer protection law also called the Credit CARD Act. Among its provisions is a prohibition against retroactive rate increases, a requirement that terms be clearly spelled out, and an extension of time before late fees can be imposed. The law also increases protections for students and young people when it comes to new credit card offers.
A section of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities who are involved in programs or activities that receive federal money. Settings in which Section 504 protections apply include education and employment.
Passed in 1976, it provides a framework for the management of federal public lands. The Act recognized the value of the public lands and stated that they should be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of the American people on the basis of sustained yield and multiple use ("utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people").
Short documents that the President of the United States may issue when signing a bill into law. Presidents can use these documents for just about any purpose they choose -- to describe a bill, to explain the bill's purpose, to praise the bill's sponsors, or to interpret particular provisions of the bill.
The U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down officially mandated prayer in public schools as violating the separation of church and state, as guaranteed by the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
- Full text: Engel v. Vitale (Nolo)
A federal law that attempted to avoid or mitigate an economic recession. The Act authorized federal payments of $300 to $1,200 to approximately 130 million American individuals and families. In addition, households received $300 for each qualifying child under the child tax credit. The law also included tax cuts to help the auto industry and to encourage spending by businesses.