A court in the state judicial system, rather than the federal judicial system, that decides cases involving state law or the state constitution. State courts are often divided according to the dollar amount of the claims they can hear. Depending on the state, small claims, justice, municipal, or city courts usually hear smaller cases, while district, circuit, superior, or county courts (or in New York, supreme court) have jurisdiction over larger cases. State courts may also be divided according to subject matter, such as criminal court, family court, and probate court.
The involvement of a government in a particular activity. Certain constitutional claims prohibit only state action, not private activities. For example, the right to free speech enshrined in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution gives people a right against laws that restrict their speech, not against private efforts to restrict speech (for example, by a private employer).
1) A body of people that is politically organized, especially one that occupies a clearly defined territory and is sovereign. 2) The political system that governs such a body of people. 3) One of the constituent parts of a nation, as in any of the 50 states.
An attorney from outside of the government selected by the Attorney General or Congress to investigate and possibly prosecute a federal government official for wrongdoing in office. The theory behind appointing a special prosecutor is that there is a built-in conflict of interest between the Department of Justice and officials who may have political or governmental connections with that department.
A special immigrant is a person who qualifies for a green card (permanent residence) under the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) special immigrant program. In order to apply for immigration documents under this status, an immigrant must fill out a petition documenting his or her circumstances and submit the petition to USCIS.
The broad term used to describe the educational system available for children (ages three to 21) with disabilities, including physical, mental, and learning disabilities See: individualized education program
The chief trial attorney in the U.S. Department of Justice, who is responsible for arguing cases before the Supreme Court. The Solicitor General is the second-highest ranking attorney in the Department of Justice, behind the Attorney General.
A portion of the FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) tax that is 12.4% of an individual's net earned income. The employee's share of the Medicare tax is 6.2% of wages up to a certain limit (called the Social Security Wage Base) that increases each year. The employer's share of the Medicare tax is 6.2% of an employee's wages up to that limit.