international law

Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview

The International Monetary Fund (“IMF”) defines foreign direct investment (“FDI”) as a “cross-border investment” in which an investor that is “resident in one economy [has] control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.” IMF, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual 100 (6th ed. 2009).

I-94 Card

Nonimmigrant visitors entering the United States with a visa are required to complete a Arrival-Departure Record (CBP Form I-94) or the Crewman Landing Permit (CBP Form I-95). The Form I-94 shows the date of arrival in the United States, the date when the authorized period of stay expires (the “Admitted Until” date), and the class of admission.

Comity of Nations

Definition

The principle that one sovereign nation voluntarily adopts or enforces the laws of another sovereign nation out of deference, mutuality, and respect.

Unlike enforcement of judgments between states in the United States (which is governed by the Comity Clause of the Constitution), there is no Constitutional obligation on a U.S. court to recognize or enforce a foreign judgment. Neither is comity of nations embodied in international law. However, sovereign nations still use comity of nations for public policy reasons.

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Comity

Definition

The legal principle that political entities (such as states, nations, or courts from different jurisdictions) will mutually recognize each other’s legislative, executive, and judicial acts. The underlying notion is that different jurisdictions will reciprocate each other’s judgments out of deference, mutuality, and respect.

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Most Favored Nation

Definition

A clause frequently included in bilateral investment treaties ("BITs") which provides that a host state shall treat all of its trading partners equally. Under such a clause, if the host state lowers a tariff for one trading partner, it must lower it for all trading partners.

Self determination (international law)

Self-determination denotes the legal right of people to decide their own destiny in the international order.  Self-determination is a core principle of international law, arising from customary international law, but also recognized as a general principle of law, and enshrined in a number of international treatie

Accord

Definition

1)  A harmonious agreement, especially between countries. 

2)  An offer to substitute a different obligation for one that was previously owed, plus the acceptance of that offer.  Either of the parties involved can propose an accord.  If the newly substituted obligation is actually performed, the performance is called a satisfaction.  See Accord and satisfaction.

International Bank of Reconstruction and Development

International Bank of Reconstruction and Development was established in 1944 as the original intritution of the World Bank group.  Its aim is to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries by promoting sustainable development through loans, guarantees and risk management products.  This is to assist in the the reconstruction and development of its member countries by facilitating the investment of capital for productive purposes.

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