juvenile law


All states define an "age of majority", usually 18. Persons younger than this age are considered minors, and must be under the care of a parent or guardian unless they are emancipated. Minors are treated differently from adults for many legal purposes...



See Civil rights, Affirmative action.


See Minor.


An orphan is a child whose parents have died. The term is sometimes used to describe any person whose parents have died, though this is less common. A child who only has one living parent is also sometimes considered an orphan. For example...


A parent is the mother or father of another person. This relationship can be established naturally, through childbirth. Parenthood can also be established through legal methods. One such method is through adoption, in which a person who is...

Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA)

The Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA) establishes national standards to determine jurisdiction in interstate custody disputes. PKPA imposes a duty on the states to enforce a child custody determination entered by a court of a sister...

Parental neglect

A parent or legal guardian’s failure to provide a child with necessities. Often considered a type of child abuse, and also referred to as child neglect. For example, California Penal Code § 270 states that “[i]f a parent of a...

paternity suit

A lawsuit to determine the identity of the father of a child, usually one born outside of marriage. A paternity suit may be brought either by the mother seeking child support, or by the father himself if the mother is denying his paternity...

personal guardian

A personal guardian is an individual, appointed by a court, who has custody of the ward (generally, a person who is a minor or legally incompetent) and the authority to make personal decisions for the ward.

For example, in...

Physical custody

1) A parent’s right to have the child reside with them. New York Domestic Relations Law § 75–a defines physical custody as “the physical care and supervision of a child.” Physical custody is not the same as legal custody, which...


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionarySee: Parental Kidnaping Prevention Act

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.