Credit Card Fraud

credit card fraud: an overview

Credit card fraud is a form of identity theft that involves an unauthorized taking of another’s credit card information for the purpose of charging purchases to the account or removing funds from it. Federal law limits cardholders’ liability to $50 in the event of credit card theft, but most banks will waive this amount if the cardholder signs an affidavit explaining the theft.

Credit card fraud schemes generally fall into one of two categories of fraud: application fraud and account takeover.

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Affirmative Action


A set of procedures designed to eliminate unlawful discrimination among applicants, remedy the results of such prior discrimination, and prevent such discrimination in the future.  Applicants may be seeking admission to an educational program or looking for professional employment. In modern American jurisprudence, it typically imposes remedies against discrimination on the basis of, at the very least, race, creed, color, and national origin.

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Assumption of Risk

Potential plaintiffs sometimes take the risk of injury onto themselves and absolve potential defendants from any liability.  Formerly, this was an affirmative defense available to defendants, but has since been subsumed by contributory and comparative negligence in most jurisdictions. see, e.g. Justice Ginsburg's dissent in Honda Motor Co. v. Oberg, 512 US 415 (1994).


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