public international law



1) A harmonious agreement, especially between countries.

2) An offer to substitute a different obligation for one that was previously owed, plus the acceptance of that offer. Either of the parties involved can propose an accord. If...

Biological experiments

Subjecting people to biological experiments without consent, when perpetrated in an armed conflict, is a war crime punishable by the International Criminal Court. A prosecution for biological experiments must show the following elements:

One or more...

Foreign Relations

Foreign Relations Law: An Overview

Foreign relations law of the United States encompasses both International Law, which embodies the rules that determine the rights and obligations of states and international organizations, and that part of the domestic...

Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols

Note: This article addresses the international humanitarian law, or law of war. For information on immigration and links to the 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, see the article about Immigration.




Genocide is one of the greatest crimes under international law, often called the "crime of crimes" after the Nuremburg Trials. According to Article 2 of the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide...


Mutilation is a war crime under international criminal law. Under the law of the International Criminal Court, a prosecution for mutilation must show the following:

The victim was permanently disfigured, or else an organ or appendage was permanently...

peremptory norm

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionarySee: jus cogens

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.


Pillaging is a war crime. To show a crime of pillaging at the International Criminal Court, it must be shown that:

the perpetrator appropiated property;with the intention of private or personal use;without the owner's consent;in relation to an...


Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary1) Crimes of robbery, kidnapping, and similar activities on the high seas. The trial and punishment of such pirates may be under international law, or under the laws of the particular nation where the...

Piracy (Maritime)

Piracy is when non-state actors commit war-like acts against ships. In the United States, piracy is governed by admiralty law. Piracy is prohibited by both United States and international law.

At present, prosecuting pirates presents several...