A jury's findings or conclusions on the factual issues presented by a case. Sometimes, the term also refers to the judge's resolution of issues in a bench trial.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005...



A declaration swearing that statements made in a document are true. Depending on the jurisdiction, verifications are either made under oath or in the presence of a notary public or similarly authorized person. Verifications are traditionally...



Against. Abbreviated as v. and vs. Used in case names, e.g. McDonald v. Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 3020 (2010).

See also

Adverse party

Vertical privity


1) In business law, the relationship between companies in a distribution chain. For example, a manufacturer and a distributor are in vertical privity. Those in vertical privity are jointly liable for product defects in the vertical chain....

Vessel Hull Design Protection Act

Title V of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Vessel Hull Design Protection Act, provides sui generis protection for an “original design of a useful article” (where “useful article” is limited to boat hulls). It was intended to replace the...


A right or an interest in property "vests" when it is secured. This means that the beneficiary of the right or property interest is certain to receive a specific amount, either now or in the future.


Having an absolute right or title to something, to be enjoyed either now or in the future. A vested right is unconditional; it is no longer dependent on any event even if it was in the past.

See Contingent (contrast).

Vestigial words

Words and phrases that technically appear in statutes, but lack use or meaning because amendments or other statutes have diminished their effect.


The power of one person or body to prohibit a course of action chosen by another. In a political context, "veto" usually refers to the power of a chief executive to block or complicate passage of a legislative bill by refusing to sign it into law....

Vexatious litigation

Legal proceedings started with malice and without good case. Vexatious litigation is meant to bother, embarrass, or cause legal expenses to the defendant. A plaintiff who starts such litigation either knows or should reasonably know that no legal...