The Court held in Waters-Pierce Oil Co. v. Texas, 212 U.S. 86 (1909), that States, through their police powers, have the authority to punish crimes; The Supreme Court can only interfere with state legislation if fines are grossly excessive.
Full case name: National Federation of Independent Business, et al. v. Sebelius, Secretary of Health and Human Services, et al. (2012)
Part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Actions prohibited by Title IX include sexual harassment, the failure to provide equal opportunity in athletics, and discrimination based on pregnancy.
A national organization that engages in litigation, legislative lobbying, and educational outreach in order to preserve and further individual rights and liberties that are guaranteed by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Among the constitutional rights that the ACLU promotes are First Amendment, equal protection, due process, and privacy rights.
An attempt to amend the U.S. Constitution to give the citizens of the District of Columbia the same full representation in Congress as any state. Proposed in 1978, the amendment expired in 1985 and was never ratified.
The namesake of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. Ms. Ledbetter was the plaintiff in a lawsuit against her employer, in which she claimed that she had been paid less because of her gender. The U.S. Supreme Court threw out her case because she had not brought it within the 180-day statute of limitations, which the Court held started running on the day that Ms. Ledbetter and her employer first agreed on her pay. The 2009 law was passed by Congress specifically to overturn this decision and establish that the statute of limitations starts over with each paycheck. See: statute of limitations
An attempt to amend the U.S. Constitution to guarantee equal rights between the sexes. More commonly called the ERA, this proposed amendment expired in 1982 and was never ratified.
The U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that juvenile offenders cannot be sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole for a non-homicide crime, because such a sentence violates the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment.
- Full text: Graham v. Florida