the Constitution


Specifically defined or otherwise included in a legislative statute. Sometimes used in a wider sense to refer to principles that can be found not just in statutes, but also in constitutions, administrative rules, and other non-judicial sources of law...

Collateral Estoppel

The doctrine of collateral estoppel, a common law legacy codified by Ashe v. Swenson 397 U.S. 436 (1970), protects criminal defendants from being tried for the same issue in more than one criminal trial. In Ashe v. Swenson, the Court ruled that the...

Comfort Care

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryMedical care intended to provide relief from pain and discomfort, such as pain control drugs. (See also: palliative care)

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.



The legal principle that political entities (such as states, nations, or courts from different jurisdictions) will mutually recognize each other’s legislative, executive, and judicial acts. The underlying notion is that different...

Commander in Chief Powers

Article II Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution, the Commander in Chief clause, states that "[t]he President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual...


In 15 U.S.C. §1127:

1) The exchanging, buying, or selling of things having economic value between two or more entities, for example goods, services, and money. Commerce is often done on a large scale, typically between individuals, businesses,...

Commerce Clause


The Commerce Clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.

Congress has...

Commerce Control List

In the interest of U.S. national security, the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which regulate the export and re-export of many...

Commerce Power

Congress has the power to regulate the channels and instrumentalities of interstate commerce. Channels refers to the highways, waterways, and air traffic of the country. Instrumentalities refers to cars, trucks, ships, and airplanes. Congress also...

Commercial Speech


Speech which promotes at least some type of commerce.


Under Central Hudson Gas & Electric v. Public Service Commission, 447 U.S. 557 (1980), commercial speech is less protected under the First Amendment than other...