A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the 1964 Civil Rights Act provisions for affirmative action programs to encourage minority hiring for jobs in which the minorities were previously underrepresented were constitutional.
A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court declared so-called restrictive covenants in real property deeds that prohibited the sale of property to non-Caucasians to be unconstitutional and in violation of the equal protection provision of the Fourteenth Amendment. Where such covenants remain in the text of deeds they must be ignored.
The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman’s right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus.
Full text of Roe v. Wade (1973):
U.S. Supreme Court decision sustaining the Espionage Act of 1917. The Court ruled that freedom of speech and freedom of the press could be limited if the words in the circumstances created "a clear and present danger."
A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the voting districts of state legislatures must have roughly equal populations. The decision was based on the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution and is sometimes known as the "one person, one vote" rule.
A U.S. Supreme Court decision that overturned "the Scottsboro case," in which several black men were falsely charged with raping a white woman. The Court held that organized exclusion of blacks from jury panels (the pool of potential jurors) was a violation of a defendants' constitutional right to due process.
A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that prior restraint on publications is a violation of free speech and free press. In so doing, the Court struck down a state law that allowed the police to confiscate publications that were malicious, scandalous, or obscene. The case involved a virulently anti-Semitic pamphlet.
The Supreme Court held that the custodial interrogation of an individual must be accompanied by an instruction that the person has the right to remain silent, any statements made can be used against the person, and that the individual has the right to counsel, either retained or appointed; absent these safeguards, statements made in this context will be inadmissible in court. (Read the opinion here.)
The rule that when a defendant has been detained for an unreasonably long time between arrest and a preliminary hearing, confessions obtained during that time are not admissible. This rule rarely comes into play because of the broader protections afforded by the Miranda rule. (See also: Miranda warnings)
The Supreme Court case that defined the scope of the federal legislative power and the federal government’s relationship with state government authority. (Read the opinion here).