The term willful refers to acts which are intentional, conscious, voluntary, and designed to achieve a particular result. The meaning of the term “willful” depends on the context in which it is used. For example:

In the context of...

willful tort

A willful tort is a tort that is committed in an intentional and conscious way. It is a harmful act that is committed with the wish to harm another person. It is an act that is neither accidental nor due to negligence.


wills: attestation requirement

Wills must be attested (witnessed) in order to be valid. The witness must acknowledge the will. Most states require more than one witness.

wills: signature requirement

Wills must be signed in order to be valid. Some states require that the signature appear at the end of the document, while other states allow the signature to appear anywhere on the document.

wills: writing requirement

Wills must be in writing in order to be valid, but not necessarily paper. The writing requirement is met long as the will is written in some more or less permanent medium.

winding up

The settlement of debts and liquidation of assets, done with the goal of dissolving a partnership or corporation.

See: dissolution of corporation.

winding up a corporation

The process of dissolving a corporation or settling the affairs of a dissolved corporation. Winding up a corporation generally takes place when a corporation decides to end a business or declares bankruptcy. Winding up involves the settling...

WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act

Title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the “WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998” added Chapter 12, Copyright Protection and Management Systems, to the Copyright Act.

At the time of the DMCA...

wire fraud

Wire fraud occurs when interstate wirings are used in furtherance of a criminal act. In order for a defendant to be convicted under 18 U.S.C. 1343 for committing wire fraud, the follow elements must be satisfied: (1) the defendant must have been...


One of several possible means to acquire the contents of a communication by means of an electronic device.