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Direct Infringement

The unauthorized exercise of one of the exclusive rights granted to the owner of a patent, copyright or trademark. 

In patent, direct infringement occurs when a person without authorization makes, uses, offers to sell or sells any patented invention within the United States or imports into the United States any patented invention during the term of the patent therefor.  See 35 U.S.C. § 271.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations.  It is composed of representatives of all 192 members of the UN.  The UNGA has as its functions the following:  

The website of the UNGA (http://www.un.org/ga/) is an excellent online resource and provides links to many secondary sources concerning the UN system.

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Pro hac vice

Pro hac vice is a legal term for adding an attorney to a case in a jurisdiction in which he or she is not licensed to practice in such a way that the attorney does not commit unauthorized practice of law. For example, an Ohio licensed attorney may practice pro hac vice in a New York case, although normally he or she would be engaged in the unauthorized practice of law in New York without admission to the New York Bar. In almost all U.S. jurisdictions, attorneys who practice pro hac vice must do so with a local lawyer acting as local counsel.


Genocide is one of the greatest crimes under international law, often called the "crime of crimes" after the Nuremburg Trials.  According to Article 2 of the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defines genocide as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately infli

Mandatory Power of Appointment

If a power is mandatory, then there is a duty to exercise it. A mandatory power of appointment can be contrasted with a discretionary power of appointment. If the power holder fails to exercise the mandatory power of appointment, the court must step in and execute the power by distributing all of the property in favor of the persons in whose favor the power may have been exercised.

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