wex definitions

Zero tape


A printout that shows that no votes have been cast on a voting machine prior to a poll's opening.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. NAACP of Pennsylvania v. Cortes, 591 F.Supp.2d 757, 761 (E.D.Pa. 2008).

See also



Zone of danger rule


A doctrine that limits the liability of persons accused of negligent infliction of emotional distress ("NIED"). If the zone of danger rule applies, plaintiffs suing for NIED may only recover damages if they were (1) "placed in immediate risk...

Zone of interests


The type of interests or concerns that a law is intended to regulate or protect. The law can be a constitutional provision or legislative statute. To have standing when challenging state action based on a law, the plaintiff's injury must...



Legislative act dividing a jurisdiction's land into sections and regulating different land uses in each section in accordance with a zoning ordinance.

Flexibility in Zoning

A number of devices allow governing boards to include...

Zoning ordinance


A municipal law that outlines permitted uses for various sections of land. Thus, some parts of a city may be dedicated to industrial use, while others may be set aside for residential or commercial use only. A zoning ordinance may also...