An overhaul of the education system that requires states to establish challenging academic standards for all schools, to test students regularly to ensure they are meeting those standards, and to employ teachers who are highly qualified. Signed into law by President George W. Bush, NCLB uses a controversial system of incentives and penalties to achieve its goals.
An emergency appropriations act that, among other things, provided funding for the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, contained disaster relief related to Hurricane Katrina, and raised the federal minimum wage.
An act that raised the federally mandated minimum wage in three increments, eventually fixing the rate at $7.25 per hour in July 2009. The Act amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
An omnibus energy policy law designed to increase energy efficiency and develop renewable energy. Signed by President George W. Bush, among other things, the law sets new fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks (35 miles per gallon by 2020), encourages the development and production of advanced technology vehicles, encourages biofuel development, sets new efficiency standards for appliances and lighting, encourages alternate energy research and development, and mandates energy efficiency in public buildings.
Also called a simple resolution, used by Congress to regulate the administrative or internal business in either the House or the Senate, or to express facts or opinions on non-legislative matters. Identified by the abbreviations "H.Res." or "S.Res." and a number, resolutions of Congress do not have to be signed by the president and do not have the force of law.
A type of legislation used by Congress for expressing fact, principles, opinions, or purposes in which both the House and Senate have a common interest. Identified by the abbreviations "H.Con.Res." or "S.Con.Res." and a number, these kinds of resolutions do not have to be signed by the president and do not have the force of law.
An attempt to amend the U.S. Constitution to give the citizens of the District of Columbia the same full representation in Congress as any state. Proposed in 1978, the amendment expired in 1985 and was never ratified.
Amends the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to say that the 180-day statute of limitations for filing an equal pay claim starts over with each unequal paycheck. Signed into law by President Barack Obama, this law was passed specifically to overturn a U.S. Supreme Court case that held that the statute of limitations starts on the day the pay was first agreed upon. See: Statute of limitations
The namesake of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. Ms. Ledbetter was the plaintiff in a lawsuit against her employer, in which she claimed that she had been paid less because of her gender. The U.S. Supreme Court threw out her case because she had not brought it within the 180-day statute of limitations, which the Court held started running on the day that Ms. Ledbetter and her employer first agreed on her pay. The 2009 law was passed by Congress specifically to overturn this decision and establish that the statute of limitations starts over with each paycheck. See: statute of limitations
An attempt to amend the U.S. Constitution to guarantee equal rights between the sexes. More commonly called the ERA, this proposed amendment expired in 1982 and was never ratified.