arm's length

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“A treaty, including one between the United States and an Indian tribe, is essentially a contract between two sovereign nations. When the signatory nations have not been at war and neither is the vanquished, it is reasonable to assume that they negotiated as equals at arm’s length. There is no reason to doubt that this assumption applies to the treaties at issue here.” J. Stevens, Washington v. Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel, 443 U.S. 653, 675 (1979).