Temporary restraing orders are short-term pre-trial temporary injunctions. To obtain a temporary restraining order, a party must convince the judge that he or she will suffer immediate irreparable harm unless the order is issued. If the judge is convinced that a temporary restraining order is necessary, he or she may issue the order immediately, without informing the other parties and without holding a hearing. These orders are intended to be stop-gap measures, and only last until the court holds a hearing on whether or not to grant a preliminary injunction. Judges' decisions on whether or not to issue a temporary restraining order may not be appealed.
In the federal courts, temporary restraining orders are governed by Rule 65(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. State rules regarding temporary restraining orders and other injunctions vary from state to state. See State Civil Procedure Rules.
See Civil Procedure.