Women and Justice: Keywords


Child Pornography (Prevention) Act of 2009 (2009)

Statutory rape or defilement, Trafficking in persons

The Child Pornography (Prevention) Act prohibits the production, distribution, importation, exportation or possession of child pornography and the use of children for pornography A “Child” is a male or a female person under the age of 18 years. Child pornography constitutes any visual representation, any audio recording or written material depicting engagement of a child in sexual activity or depicts body parts of child for sexual purposes, or depicts a child subject to torture, cruelty, or physical abuse of a sexual context. A person who has custody of, charge or care of a child and knowingly causes or incites the involvement of a child in the production of child pornography commits an offence and will be liable for a fine or to imprisonment (or both) for a term not exceeding 15 years. The production or distribution of child pornography carries a penalty of imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years. Possession of child pornography carries a penalty of a fine or imprisonment (or both) for a term not exceeding 8 years. The receipt of any financial benefit from any offence in terms of the act carries a penalty of a fine or imprisonment (or both) for a term not exceeding 20 years. The act preserves the identity of the victims, thereby preventing any disclosure in relation to the victim. Any person that publishes information in contravention of the act shall be liable for a fine not exceeding one million dollars or imprisonment for a maximum period of 12 months. 

Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch/Swiss Penal Code, Article 67: Prohibition on carrying on an activity involving regular contact with minors following sentencing for certain offenses (2019)

Sexual violence and rape, Statutory rape or defilement, Trafficking in persons

This article provides that a person who is sentenced to a custodial sentence of more than six months or to indefinite incarceration or involuntary commitment for offenses committed during the exercise of a professional activity or organized non-professional activity shall be prohibited from carrying on the exercise when it involves regular contact with any minors for 10 years. The offenses include: statutory rape or other child sexual abuse, rape and sexual coercion, child pornography, encouraging prostitution, and human trafficking. Unofficial English translation available here.

Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch/Swiss Penal Code, Article 5: Offenses against minors (2019)

Statutory rape or defilement, Trafficking in persons

Art. 5 provides that the Swiss Penal Code also applies to any person who is in Switzerland, is not being extradited, and has committed any of the following offenses abroad: (1) Trafficking in human beings (Penal Code Art. 182), sexual coercion (Penal Code Art. 189), rape (Penal Code Art. 190), sexual acts with a person incapable of proper judgment or resistance (Penal Code Art. 191) or encouraging prostitution (Penal Code Art. 195) if the victim was less than 18 years of age; (2) sexual acts with dependent persons (Penal Code Art. 188) and sexual acts with minors against payment (Penal Code Art. 196); (3) sexual acts with a child (Penal Code Art. 187) and sexual acts with a minor of age less than 14; or (4) aggravated pornography (Penal Code Art. 197, para. 3 and 4) if the objects or representations depict sexual acts with minors. Unofficial English translation available here.

Criminal Offenses: Child Pornography Prohibited

Statutory rape or defilement

This statute prohibits production, reproduction, distribution, transfer and knowing possession of child pornography through any medium, device or format.

Minor Electronically Disseminating Indecent Material to Another Person - "Sexting" Prohibited (Title 11, Chapter 9, General Laws of Rhode Island)

Statutory rape or defilement

Rhode Island law prohibits minors from knowingly and voluntarily and without threat or coercion using a computer or telecommunication device to transmit an indecent visual depiction of himself or herself to another person. Minors who transmit indecent images of themselves will not be subject to sex offender registration.

Domestic Case Law

Ministério Público v. [Undisclosed Parties], 9/14.7GCTND.C1 Tribunal da Relação de Coimbra (Court of Appeal of Coimbra) (2016)

Sexual harassment, Statutory rape or defilement

The Public Prosecutor (Ministério Público) brought charges against the defendant, “A” (name omitted from public record), for sexual harassment against the victim, “D” (name omitted from public record) a minor girl. A had naked pictures of D and threatened to expose them using the internet unless D agreed to have sexual intercourse with him. The Lower Court held that D’s conduct did not meet the requirements of sexual harassment under section 163 of the Portuguese Penal Code, which requires a grave threat to the victim as an element of the crime. The Lower Court held that the threat to expose naked pictures of D is considered a grave threat under the Portuguese Penal Code. The Public Prosecutor appealed, and the Appellate Court reversed the decision, finding B guilty of sexual harassment.

Ministério Público v. [Undisclosed Parties], 481/14.5JABRG.P1 Tribunal da Relação de Porto (Court of Appeal of Porto) (2017)

Statutory rape or defilement

The Public Prosecutor (Ministério Público) brought charges of child pornography against defendant, “B” (name omitted from public record), for committing the crime of child pornography. The Public Prosecutor argued that B. kept naked pictures of a 14-year-old girl. The Lower Court found B not guilty of child pornography, because B did not coerce the girl to send him the pictures, but instead had received the pictures from the girl out of her own free will. The Appellate Court reversed the decision, holding that the means by which the pictures were obtained were irrelevant, and maintaining that possession of naked pictures of a minor is sufficient for the crime of child pornography under section 176 of the Portuguese Penal Code. 

Alejandro G.D., Case No. 193-2013-2 Tribunal Segundo de Sentencia de San Salvador (2014)

Statutory rape or defilement

In April, 2013, the National Civil Police, a unit of the Computer Crime Investigation Group of the Central Investigation Division launched a search for pornography.  Chief inspector Jesus Perez Sanches instructed two investigative agents to perform a search when they observed five individuals, including Alejandro G.D., selling pornography on the street in a residential neighborhood.  Alejandro was showing to the public the pornographic images from the movie cases, including children accompanied by parents, students, and elderly individuals.  During the investigation, the agents found numerous DVDs including pornographic images on the movie cases.  Eleven of the 362 seized films referenced “child pornography” on the face of the movie cases and on the DVDs within the cases.  The investigators arrested the individuals, including Alejandro G.D. and seized all the pornographic paraphernalia.  Section 173 of the El Salvadoran Penal Code provides that when a person produces, reproduces, distributes, publishes, imports, exports, offers, finances, sells, trades, or disseminates, in any form, images or uses the voice of a person under the age of eighteen, or a person that is incapacitated or mentally disabled, including computerized, audiovisual, virtual or other mediums of exhibiting sexual, erotic, real or simulated acts of a sexual nature, he or she shall be punished with 6-12 years of imprisonment.  Pursuant to Article 417, the court has the authority to reduce the minimum sentence.  Accordingly, Alejandro was sentenced to three years of imprisonment for possession of and selling child pornography.

2016 (A). No. 1731 Supreme Court of Japan (2014)

Sexual violence and rape, Statutory rape or defilement

The defendant committed acts of obscenity upon a young girl.  He alleged that it was only for a monetary purpose—to record the act and give the record to his acquaintance in return for receiving a loan —and that he had no sexual intent.  The defendant appealed the High Court’s ruling that sexual intent is not required to establish a prima facie case of indecent assault, which is proscribed by Article 176 of the Japanese Penal Code.  He argued that the High Court’s finding was inconsistent with a judicial precedent holding that sexual intent is an element for the crime.  The Supreme Court, upon noting that the scope of sexual crimes cannot be properly determined without taking into account the views of contemporary society, found that, in the present day, the focus should be on the existence, details, and extent of sexual damage caused to a victim rather than an assailant’s intent.  Thus, the Supreme Court, sustained the High Court’s finding and overturned the 47-year-old jurisprudence. The Court found that, while it could not deny that there may be a situation in which the sexual intent of a perpetrator becomes an important factor in finding the crime, it was not reasonable to uniformly require the existence of such a factor for the crime of indecent assault.  

J.B.G.G. v. Attorney General's Office J.B.G.G. v. Attorney General's Office (2012)

Statutory rape or defilement

On June 27, 2008, a man invited a 15-year-old girl to his home, where he and an accomplice proceeded to drug and sedate her. Once she regained consciousness, the defendant had oral sexual relations with her, while his friend made a video recording of it. Both the defendant and his accomplice were sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for "special violation," also known as statutory rape, and child pornography. The defendant appealed his conviction on the ground that no child pornography crime had been committed by him, as it was his accomplice that made the video. The Court rejected this argument and reasoned that, regardless of who made the recording, the defendant clearly consented to having it recorded. In accordance with Honduras criminal law, that consent constitutes conspiracy for the commission of the crime of child pornography. A co-conspirator is equally responsible for a crime as the principal. Therefore, the court upheld the sentence. 

El 27 de junio de 2008, un hombre invitó a una niña de 15 años a su casa, donde él y un cómplice procedieron a drogarla y sedarla. Una vez que recuperó la conciencia, el acusado tuvo relaciones sexuales orales con ella, mientras que su amigo hizo una grabación en video del acto. Tanto el acusado como su cómplice fueron condenados a 18 años de prisión por "violación especial", también conocida como violación estatutaria y pornografía infantil. El acusado apeló su convicción sobre la base de que él no había cometido ningún delito de pornografía infantil, ya que fue su cómplice el que hizo el video. El Tribunal rechazó este argumento y razonó que, independientemente de quién hiciera la grabación, el acusado consintió claramente en grabarla. De conformidad con el derecho penal de Honduras, ese consentimiento constituye una conspiración en la comisión del delito de pornografía infantil. Un co-conspirador es igualmente responsable de un crimen como el principal. Por lo tanto, el tribunal confirmó la sentencia.

B 990-11 Supreme Court of Sweden (2011)

Sexual violence and rape

A man who possessed 39 drawn pornographic images in manga style was acquitted from a charge of possession of child pornography on the grounds that holding this possession as illegal would unreasonably limit freedom of expression. Swedish child pornography laws outlaw actual photographic material as well as drawn images. The purpose of this law is to protect children from offensive materials, to avoid anyone using child pornography to snare children into sexual situations, and to protect their likeness being shared in pornographic materials. The court argued, however, that because a conviction would mean a restraint in the defendant’s freedom of expression, the court must present a serious reason for why pornographic manga-styled cartoon images actually have the potential to harm a child in any of these ways. Because the images were not made in any child’s likeness and because manga is an expression of Japanese culture, the court ruled that the restraint on the defendant’s freedom of expression would be too great if he were convicted and the images were held to constitute child pornography.