Women and Justice: Keywords

Domestic Case Law

Whitewood v. Wolf U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania (U.S. Third Circuit Court of Appeals) (2011)

Gender discrimination, Harmful traditional practices

This case legalized same-sex marriage in Pennsylvania. Reviewing the state’s statutory ban on such marriages, the federal district court applied intermediate scrutiny and determined that the ban violated the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the United States Constitution. The ruling was not stayed and same-sex couples in Pennsylvania could request and receive marriage licenses immediately, and marry after a mandatory 3-day waiting period. The court’s decision made Pennsylvania the 19th state to recognize same-sex marriage.