The appellant was convicted of having carnal knowledge of a person against the order of nature (i.e., homosexual sex acts, in this case anal sexual intercourse) in violation of section 145 of the Penal Code Act. On appeal, appellant’s counsel emphasized the State offered no evidence of penetration, that corroboration is necessary in cases of sexual offenses, and the compromised credibility of several material prosecution witnesses, including a complainant. Four years before the trial when he was 17 or 18, the complainant testified that he went to the Appellant’s home for a party, which never happened. Instead, the Appellant gave the complainant a glass of wine and the complainant blacked out. The next thing he remembered was anal bleeding and seeing the defendant entering the room. The complainant testified that he was too ashamed to ask what happened. The following day went to the doctor, who told the complainant that it seemed that he had been sodomized and gave him medication. The appellate judge agreed with the trial judge that this did not amount to direct evidence of a sexual act. Four years later in 2013, the complainant told Reverend Solomon Male about the assault after hearing him on the radio. The police then searched the appellant’s home where they found chloroform, which the complainant was not examined for at his 2009 doctor’s appointment. Both the trial and appellate judges noted that the fact that the complainant did not tell any of his housemates about his bleeding or assault at the time cast doubt on his account. While medical evidence is not required for sexual assault cases, the court here was concerned that it found no evidence at all of sexual assault. The Court found that the trial judge erred in finding that the complainant’s failure to report the assault in 2009 was “a natural reaction” as a result of shame, especially because no psychologist or behavioral specialist testified at trial. The appellate court quashed the defendant’s conviction and sentence after finding that the prosecution failed to prove the first element of the offense, penetration, beyond a reasonable doubt. The appellate court also mentioned a key witness’, Pastor Solomon Male’s, publication of “malicious information of sodomy” against Ugandan pastor Robert Kayanja, which is a reference to an incident in which a boy who had accused Kayanja of sodomy withdrew his accusations and said that Male and several of his colleagues paid him and other boys to accuse the minister. In that case, Male and his clergy colleagues were convicted of conspiring to destroy Kayanja’s name and professional reputation.
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