49 CFR Part 222, Appendix A to Part 222 - Approved Supplementary Safety Measures

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 222, App. A
Appendix A to Part 222—Approved Supplementary Safety Measures
A. Requirements and Effectiveness Rates for Supplementary Safety Measures
This section provides a list of approved supplementary safety measures (SSMs) that may be installed at highway-rail grade crossings within quiet zones for risk reduction credit. Each SSM has been assigned an effectiveness rate, which may be subject to adjustment as research and demonstration projects are completed and data is gathered and refined. Sections B and C govern the process through which risk reduction credit for pre-existing SSMs can be determined.
1. Temporary Closure of a Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossing: Close the crossing to highway traffic during designated quiet periods. (This SSM can only be implemented within Partial Quiet Zones.)
Effectiveness: 1.0.
Because an effective closure system prevents vehicle entrance onto the crossing, the probability of a collision with a train at the crossing is zero during the period the crossing is closed. Effectiveness would therefore equal 1. However, analysis should take into consideration that traffic would need to be redistributed among adjacent crossings or grade separations for the purpose of estimating risk following the silencing of train horns, unless the particular “closure” was accomplished by a grade separation.
Required:
a. The closure system must completely block highway traffic on all approach lanes to the crossing.
b. The closure system must completely block adjacent pedestrian crossings.
c. Public highway-rail grade crossings located within New Partial Quiet Zones shall be closed from 10 p.m. until 7 a.m. every day. Public highway-rail grade crossings located within Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones may only be closed during one period each 24 hours.
d. Barricdes and signs used for closure of the roadway shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD.
e. Daily activation and deactivation of the system is the responsibility of the public authority responsible for maintenance of the street or highway crossing the railroad tracks. The public authority may provide for third party activation and deactivation; however, the public authority shall remain fully responsible for compliance with the requirements of this part.
f. The system must be tamper and vandal resistant to the same extent as other traffic control devices.
g. The closure system shall be equipped with a monitoring device that contains an indicator which is visible to the train crew prior to entering the crossing. The indicator shall illuminate whenever the closure device is deployed.
Recommended:
Signs for alternate highway traffic routes should be erected in accordance with MUTCD and State and local standards and should inform pedestrians and motorists that the streets are closed, the period for which they are closed, and that alternate routes must be used.
2. Four-Quadrant Gate System: Install gates at a crossing sufficient to fully block highway traffic from entering the crossing when the gates are lowered, including at least one gate for each direction of traffic on each approach.
Effectiveness:
Four-quadrant gates only, no presence detection: .82.
Four-quadrant gates only, with presence detection: .77.
Four-quadrant gates with traffic of at least 60 feet (with or without presence detection): .92.
Note:
The higher effectiveness rate for four-quadrant gates without presence detection does not mean that they are inherently safer than four-quadrant gates with presence detection. Four-quadrant gates with presence detection have been assigned a lower effectiveness rate because motorists may learn to delay the lowering of the exit gates by driving onto the opposing lane of traffic immediately after an opposing car has driven over the grade crossing. Since the presence detection will keep the exit gate raised, other motorists at the crossing who observe this scenario may also be tempted to take advantage of the raised exit gate by driving around the lowered entrance gates, thus increasing the potential for a crossing collision.
It should, however, be noted that there are site-specific circumstances (such as nearby highway intersections that could cause traffic to back up and stop on the grade crossing), under which the use of presence detection would be advisable. For this reason, the various effectiveness rates assigned to four-quadrant gate systems should not be the sole determining factor as to whether presence detection would be advisable. A site-specific study should be performed to determine the best application for each proposed installation. Please refer to paragraphs (f) and (g) for more information.
Required:
Four-quadrant gate systems shall conform to the standards for four-quadrant gates contained in the MUTCD and shall, in addition, comply with the following:
a. When a train is approaching, all highway approach and exit lanes on both sides of the highway-rail crossing must be spanned by gates, thus denying to the highway user the option of circumventing the conventional approach lane gates by switching into the opposing (oncoming) traffic lane in order to enter the crossing and cross the tracks.
b. Crossing warning systems must be activated by use of constant warning time devices unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning time devices.
c. Crossing warning systems must be equipped with power-out indicators.
Note:
Requirements b and c apply only to New Quiet Zones or New Partial Quiet Zones. Constant warning time devices and power-out indicators are not required to be added to existing warning systems in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones. However, if existing automatic warning device systems in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones are renewed, or new automatic warning device systems are installed, power-out indicators and constant warning time devices are required, unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning devices.
d. The gap between the ends of the entrance and exit gates (on the same side of the railroad tracks) when both are in the fully lowered, or down, position must be less than two feet if no median is present. If the highway approach is equipped with a median or a channelization device between the approach and exit lanes, the lowered gates must reach to within one foot of the median or channelization device, measured horizontally across the road from the end of the lowered gate to the median or channelization device or to a point over the edge of the median or channelization device. The gate and the median top or channelization device do not have to be at the same elevation.
e. “Break-away” channelization devices must be frequently monitored to replace broken elements.
Recommendations for new installations only:
f. Gate timing should be established by a qualified traffic engineer based on site specific determinations. Such determination should consider the need for and timing of a delay in the descent of the exit gates (following descent of the conventional entrance gates). Factors to be considered may include available storage space between the gates that is outside the fouling limits of the track(s) and the possibility that traffic flows may be interrupted as a result of nearby intersections.
g. A determination should be made as to whether it is necessary to provide vehicle presence detectors (VPDs) to open or keep open the exit gates until all vehicles are clear of the crossing. VPD should be installed on one or both sides of the crossing and/or in the surface between the rails closest to the field. Among the factors that should be considered are the presence of intersecting roadways near the crossing, the priority that the traffic crossing the railroad is given at such intersections, the types of traffic control devices at those intersections, and the presence and timing of traffic signal preemption.
h. Highway approaches on one or both sides of the highway-rail crossing may be provided with medians or channelization devices between the opposing lanes. Medians should be defined by a non-traversable curb or traversable curb, or by reflectorized channelization devices, or by both.
i. Remote monitoring (in addition to power-out indicators, which are required) of the status of these crossing systems is preferable. This is especially important in those areas in which qualified railroad signal department personnel are not readily available.
3. Gates With Medians or Channelization Devices: Install medians or channelization devices on both highway approaches to a public highway-rail grade crossing denying to the highway user the option of circumventing the approach lane gates by switching into the opposing (oncoming) traffic lane and driving around the lowered gates to cross the tracks.
Effectiveness:
Channelization devices—.75.
Non-traversable curbs with or without channelization devices— .80.
Required:
a. Opposing traffic lanes on both highway approaches to the crossing must be separated by either: (1) medians bounded by non-traversable curbs or (2) channelization devices.
b. Medians or channelization devices must extend at least 100 feet from the gate arm, or if there is an intersection within 100 feet of the gate, the median or channelization device must extend at least 60 feet from the gate arm.
c. Intersections of two or more streets, or a street and an alley, that are within 60 feet of the gate arm must be closed or relocated. Driveways for private, residential properties (up to four units) within 60 feet of the gate arm are not considered to be intersections under this part and need not be closed. However, consideration should be given to taking steps to ensure that motorists exiting the driveways are not able to move against the flow of traffic to circumvent the purpose of the median and drive around lowered gates. This may be accomplished by the posting of “no left turn” signs or other means of notification. For the purpose of this part, driveways accessing commercial properties are considered to be intersections and are not allowed. It should be noted that if a public authority can not comply with the 60 feet or 100 feet requirement, it may apply to FRA for a quiet zone under § 222.39(b), “Public authority application to FRA.” Such arrangement may qualify for a risk reduction credit in calculation of the Quiet Zone Risk Index. Similarly, if a public authority finds that it is feasible to only provide channelization on one approach to the crossing, it may also apply to FRA for approval under § 222.39(b). Such an arrangement may also qualify for a risk reduction credit in calculation of the Quiet Zone Risk Index.
d. Crossing warning systems must be activated by use of constant warning time devices unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning time devices.
e. Crossing warning systems must be equipped with power-out indicators. Note: Requirements d and e apply only to New Quiet Zones and New Partial Quiet Zones. Constant warning time devices and power-out indicators are not required to be added to existing warning systems in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones or Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones. However, if existing automatic warning device systems in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones are renewed, or new automatic warning device systems are installed, power-out indicators and constant warning time devices are required, unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning devices.
f. The gap between the lowered gate and the curb or channelization device must be one foot or less, measured horizontally across the road from the end of the lowered gate to the curb or channelization device or to a point over the curb edge or channelization device. The gate and the curb top or channelization device do not have to be at the same elevation.
g. “Break-away” channelization devices must be frequently monitored to replace broken elements.
4. One Way Street with Gate(s): Gate(s) must be installed such that all approaching highway lanes to the public highway-rail grade crossing are completely blocked.
Effectiveness: .82.
Required:
a. Gate arms on the approach side of the crossing should extend across the road to within one foot of the far edge of the pavement. If a gate is used on each side of the road, the gap between the ends of the gates when both are in the lowered, or down, position must be no more than two feet.
b. If only one gate is used, the edge of the road opposite the gate mechanism must be configured with a non-traversable curb extending at least 100 feet.
c. Crossing warning systems must be activated by use of constant warning time devices unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning time devices.
d. Crossing warning systems must be equipped with power-out indicators.
Note:
Requirements c and d apply only to New Quiet Zones and New Partial Quiet Zones. Constant warning time devices and power-out indicators are not required to be added to existing warning systems in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones or Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones. If automatic warning systems are, however, installed or renewed in a Pre-Rule Quiet or Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zone, power-out indicators and constant warning time devices shall be installed, unless existing conditions at the crossing would prevent the proper operation of the constant warning time devices.
5. Permanent Closure of a Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossing: Permanently close the crossing to highway traffic.
Effectiveness: 1.0.
Required:
a. The closure system must completely block highway traffic from entering the grade crossing.
b. Barricades and signs used for closure of the roadway shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD.
c. The closure system must be tamper and vandal resistant to the same extent as other traffic control devices.
d. Since traffic will be redistributed among adjacent crossings, the traffic counts for adjacent crossings shall be increased to reflect the diversion of traffic from the closed crossing.
B. Credit for Pre-Existing SSMs in New Quiet Zones and New Partial Quiet Zones
A community that has implemented a pre-existing SSM at a public grade crossing can receive risk reduction credit by inflating the Risk Index With Horns as follows:
1. Calculate the current risk index for the grade crossing that is equipped with a qualifying, pre-existing SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete this calculation.)
2. Adjust the risk index by accounting for the increased risk that was avoided by implementing the pre-existing SSM at the public grade crossing. This adjustment can be made by dividing the risk index by one minus the SSM effectiveness rate. (For example, the risk index for a crossing equipped with pre-existing channelization devices would be divided by .25.)
3. Add the current risk indices for the other public grade crossings located within the proposed quiet zone and divide by the number of crossings. The resulting risk index will be the new Risk Index With Horns for the proposed quiet zone.
C. Credit for Pre-Existing SSMs in Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones
A community that has implemented a pre-existing SSM at a public grade crossing can receive risk reduction credit by inflating the Risk Index With Horns as follows:
1. Calculate the current risk index for the grade crossing that is equipped with a qualifying, pre-existing SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete this calculation.)
2. Reduce the current risk index for the grade crossing to reflect the risk reduction that would have been achieved if the locomotive horn was routinely sounded at the crossing. The following list sets forth the estimated risk reduction for certain types of crossings:
a. Risk indices for passive crossings shall be reduced by 43%;
b. Risk indices for grade crossings equipped with automatic flashing lights shall be reduced by 27%; and
c. Risk indices for gated crossings shall be reduced by 40%.
3. Adjust the risk index by accounting for the increased risk that was avoided by implementing the pre-existing SSM at the public grade crossing. This adjustment can be made by dividing the risk index by one minus the SSM effectiveness rate. (For example, the risk index for a crossing equipped with pre-existing channelization devices would be divided by .25.)
4. Adjust the risk indices for the other crossings that are included in the Pre-Rule Quiet Zone or Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zone by reducing the current risk index to reflect the risk reduction that would have been achieved if the locomotive horn was routinely sounded at each crossing. Please refer to step two for the list of approved risk reduction percentages by crossing type.
5. Add the new risk indices for each crossing located within the proposed quiet zone and divide by the number of crossings. The resulting risk index will be the new Risk Index With Horns for the quiet zone.

Title 49 published on 2014-10-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.