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§ 2-700. How to Cite Books

The relevant citation principles follow; section 3-700 provides basic examples.

§ 2-710. Book Citations – Most Common Form [BB|ALWD]

Principle: A standard book citation consists of the following elements (in order):

§ 2-710(a) Examples Window (restore)

Element (a) - The volume number (if it is a multi-volume work) «e.g.»
¡But see § 2-715(1)!

§ 2-710(b) Examples Window (restore)

Element (b) - The full name of the author(s) followed by a comma

§ 2-710(c) Examples Window (restore)

Element (c) - Title (italicized or underlined), with all words other than prepositions and conjunctions begun with a capital letter «e.g.»

§ 2-710(d) Examples Window (restore)

Element (d) - Cited portion(s) of the book indicated by section, paragraph, or page number «e.g.».

§ 2-710(e) Examples Window (restore)

Element (e) - Parentheses containing the edition number (if there have been multiple editions) and year of publication «e.g.»
¡But see § 2-715(3)!

§ 2-715. Book Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice

§ 2-715 Examples Window (restore)

Point 1: While longstanding conventional practice, as reflected in The Bluebook, is to place the volume number of a multi-volume work before the author's name, the ALWD Citation Manual calls for a volume number to be placed following the title with the other subdivision information «e.g.».

Point 2: The Bluebook and the ALWD Citation Manual call for the same treatment of multiple authors. The former more than the latter, however, indicates a presumption that with more than two authors "et al." should be used «e.g.».

Point 3: The ALWD Citation Manual calls for routine inclusion of the publisher's name (abbreviated) in the parentheses, before the year of publication. Where there is an edition number the publisher's name follows it, separated by a comma «e.g.». The Bluebook directs insertion of the publisher's name only when that is necessary in order to distinguish different publishers' editions.

§ 2-720. Book Citations – Variants and Special Cases

§ 2-720(1) Examples Window (restore)

Special Case 1 – Works by Institutional Authors: [BB|ALWD]

Works by institutional authors are cited like books by individuals with the name of the institution substituting for the name of an individual author «e.g.». If an individual author is credited for the work along with the institution, both are listed with the individual author coming first «e.g.». Where multiple units or division of the institution are listed on the work, the citation includes the smallest unit first and then skips to the largest, omitting all in between «e.g.». In cases where an individual author is cited, the name of that author substitutes for the smallest unit.

§ 2-720(2) Examples Window (restore)

Special Case 2 – Services: [BB|ALWD]

Compilations organized around specialized fields include a wide variety of material, ranging from statutes to brief commentary. They are a frequent source of otherwise unpublished cases.

Citations to material in such a service include the name or title of the cited document in accordance with the rules applicable to its type (cases, administrative material, etc.). The portion of the citation identifying the document's address in the service includes: volume, abbreviated title (not italicized), publisher in parentheses, subdivision «e.g.». In cases where the volume designation is not simply a number it should be placed in brackets to separate it from the work's title «e.g.». The date accompanying the citation (in most cases, at the end, in parentheses) is the full date of the cited document «e.g.».

§ 2-720(3) Examples Window (restore)

Special Case 3 – Restatements: [BB|ALWD]

Restatements are not attributed to an author; they are cited simply by name, subdivision, and year.

§ 2-720(4) Examples Window (restore)

Special Case 4 – Annotations: [BB|ALWD]

Annotations in the American Law Reports (A.L.R.) are treated as articles in a collection or journal. Since the online versions in LexisNexis and Westlaw fail to show original interior pagination, they require the use of section numbers in any pinpoint reference.

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