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§ 6-300. Signals [BB|ALWD]

Citing an authority without any preceding word to clarify or qualify its connection to the text represents that the citation directly states the proposition or identifies a quotation or authority with which the citation is associated «e.g.». There is a standard set of clarifying or qualifying words used with citations. Placed in front of a citation these words are italicized (or underlined). When instead they form the verb of a sentence that includes the citation they are not italicized (or underlined). No comma separates the signal from the rest of the citation, except for "e.g." which needs a comma before and after it. Only the signal beginning a citation sentence has its initial letter capitalized. The standard clarifying or qualifying words include:

(a) Signals that indicate support.

(b) Signals that suggest a useful comparison.

(c) Signals that indicate contradiction.

(d) Signals that indicate background material.

(e) Combining a signal with "e.g."

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