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End-of-life notice: American Legal Ethics Library

As of March 1, 2013, the Legal Information Institute is no longer maintaining the information in the American Legal Ethics Library. It is no longer possible for us to maintain it at a level of completeness and accuracy given its staffing needs. It is very possible that we will revive it at a future time. At this point, it is in need of a complete technological renovation and reworking of the "correspondent firm" model which successfully sustained it for many years.

Many people have contributed time and effort to the project over the years, and we would like to thank them. In particular, Roger Cramton and Peter Martin not only conceived ALEL but gave much of their own labor to it. We are also grateful to Brad Wendel for his editorial contributions, to Brian Toohey and all at Jones Day for their efforts, and to all of our correspondents and contributors. Thank you.

We regret any inconvenience.

Some portions of the collection may already be severely out of date, so please be cautious in your use of this material.


Maryland Lawyer's Rules of Professional Conduct

Comment - Rule 3.9

[1] In representation before bodies such as legislatures, municipal councils, and executive and administrative agencies acting in a rule-making or policy-making capacity, lawyers engage in activities that are comparable to those of an advocate appearing before a tribunal. For example, lawyers present facts, formulate issues and advance argument in the matters under consideration. The decision-making body, like a court, should be able to rely on the integrity of the submissions made to it. A lawyer appearing before such a body should deal with it honestly and in conformity with applicable rules of procedure.

[2] Given these policies, this Rule requires that a lawyer who appears before legislative bodies or administrative agencies in such nonadjudicative proceedings must adhere to Rules 3.3(a) through (c), 3.4(a) through (c), and 3.5. Lawyers appearing under these circumstances must also adhere to all other applicable Rules, including Rules 4.1 through 4.4.

[3] Lawyers have no exclusive right to appear before nonadjudicative bodies, as they do before a court. The requirements of this Rule therefore may subject lawyers to regulations inapplicable to advocates who are not lawyers.

[4] Not all appearances before a legislative body or administrative agency are nonadjudicative within the meaning of this Rule. This Rule only applies when a lawyer represents a client in connection with an official or formal hearing or meeting to which the lawyer or the lawyer’s client is presenting evidence or argument. Thus, this Rule does not apply to representation of a client in a negotiation or other bilateral transaction with a governmental agency; or in connection with an application for a license or other privilege or the client’s compliance with generally applicable reporting requirements, such as the filing of income-tax returns. Nor does it apply to the representation of a client in connection with an investigation or examination of the client’s affairs conducted by government investigators or examiners. Representation in such matters is governed by Rules 4.1 through 4.4.

[5] When a lawyer appears before a legislative body or administrative agency acting in an adjudicative capacity, the legislative body or administrative agency is considered a “Tribunal” for purposes of these Rules, and all Rules relating to representation by a lawyer before a Tribunal apply. See Rule 1.0(o) for the definition of “Tribunal.”

Model Rules Comparison

Rule 3.9 has been rewritten to retain elements of existing Maryland language, to incorporate some changes from the Ethics 2000 Amendments to the ABA Model Rules, and to incorporate further revisions.