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NOTES:


Source

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, § 12, 62 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 89–152, Aug. 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 90–40, § 1(11), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 105; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, § 101(a)(31), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, § 916(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1129; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, § 1113(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 748; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, § 402(54), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3361; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, § 1366, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4002.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, as amended. Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is classified generally to subchapter IV (§ 1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education, and part C (§ 2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, § 1366(1), substituted “Except as provided in subsection (g), any person” for “Any person”.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–661, § 1366(2), added subsec. (g).
1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out sentence at end requiring that precedence be given by courts to the trial of cases arising under sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix, and that such cases had to be advanced on the docket for immediate hearing, and that an appeal from the decision or decree of any United States district court or United States court of appeals would take precedence over all other cases pending before the court to which the case had been referred.
1982—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–252 added subsec. (f).
1981—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–86 added subsec. (e).
1971—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–129 added subsec. (d).
1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40, § 1(11)(a), struck out requirement that a request of the Attorney General precede the granting of precedence to the trial of cases arising under this title and inserted provision that appeals from a decision or decree of any United States District Court or United States Court of Appeals take precedence over all other cases pending before the court to which the case has been referred.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–40, § 1(11)(b), added subsec. (c).
1965—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 89–152 prohibited a person from knowingly destroying or knowingly mutilating any registration certificate or other prescribed certificate.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as a note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 1113(b) of Pub. L. 97–252 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to loans, grants, or work assistance under title IV of the Higher Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for periods of instruction beginning after June 30, 1983.”

Study on Compliance of Health Professions Schools With Military Selective Service Act

Pub. L. 99–129, title II, § 222, Oct. 22, 1985, 99 Stat. 544, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, in cooperation with Director of Selective Service, to conduct a study to determine if health professions schools are engaged in a pattern or practice of failure to comply with section 12(f) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 462 (f)) (or regulations issued under such section) or are engaged in a pattern or practice of providing loans or work assistance to persons who are required to register under section 3 of such Act [50 App. U.S.C. 453] (and any proclamation of the President and regulations prescribed under that section) and have not so registered with Secretary and to complete the study and report its results to Congress not later than one year after Oct. 22, 1985.

Advertising Prohibition on Special Discharge Review Program

Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, § 810, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 335, prohibited the use of funds authorized or appropriated under this or any other Act to purchase advertising of the special discharge review program.

Proc. No. 4313. Program for Return of Vietnam Era Draft Evaders and Military Deserters

Proc. No. 4313, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33293, 88 Stat. 2504, as amended by Proc. No. 4345, Jan. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 4893, 89 Stat. 1236; Proc. No. 4353, Feb. 28, 1975, 40 F.R. 8931, 10433, 89 Stat. 1246, provided:
The United States withdrew the last of its forces from the Republic of Vietnam on March 28, 1973.
In the period of its involvement in armed hostilities in Southeast Asia, the United States suffered great losses. Millions served their country, thousands died in combat, thousands more were wounded, others are still listed as missing in action.
Over a year after the last American combatant had left Vietnam, the status of thousands of our countrymen—convicted, charged, investigated or still sought for violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.]—remains unresolved.
In furtherance of our national commitment to justice and mercy these young Americans should have the chance to contribute a share to the rebuilding of peace among ourselves and with all nations. They should be allowed the opportunity to earn return to their country, their communities, and their families, upon their agreement to a period of alternate service in the national interest, together with an acknowledgment of their allegiance to the country and its Constitution.
Desertion in time of war is a major, serious offense; failure to respond to the country’s call for duty is also a serious offense. Reconciliation among our people does not require that these acts be condoned. Yet, reconciliation calls for an act of mercy to bind the Nation’s wounds and to heal the scars of divisiveness.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States, pursuant to my powers under Article II, Sections 1, 2 and 3 of the Constitution, do hereby proclaim a program to commence immediately to afford reconciliation to Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters upon the following terms and conditions:
1. Draft Evaders—An individual who allegedly unlawfully failed under the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, to register or register on time, to keep the local board informed of his current address, to report for or submit to preinduction or induction examination, to report for or submit to induction itself, or to report for or submit to, or complete service under section 6(j) of such Act [section 456 (j) of this Appendix] during the period from August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973, inclusive, and who has not been adjudged guilty in a trial for such offense, will be relieved of prosecution and punishment for such offense if he:
(i) presents himself to a United States Attorney before March 31, 1975,
(ii) executes an agreement acknowledging his allegiance to the United States and pledging to fulfill a period of alternate service under the auspices of the Director of Selective Service, and
(iii) satisfactorily completes such service.
The alternate service shall promote the national health, safety, or interest. No draft evader will be given the privilege of completing a period of alternate service by service in the Armed Forces.
However, this program will not apply to an individual who is precluded from re-entering the United States under 8 U.S.C. 1182 (a)(22) or other law. Additionally, if individuals eligible for this program have other criminal charges outstanding, their participation in the program may be conditioned upon, or postponed until after, final disposition of the other charges has been reached in accordance with law.
The period of service shall be twenty-four months, which may be reduced by the Attorney General because of mitigating circumstances.
2. Military Deserters—A member of the armed forces who has been administratively classified as a deserter by reason of unauthorized absence and whose absence commenced during the period from August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973, inclusive, will be relieved of prosecution and punishment under Articles 85, 86 and 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 885, 886, 887] for such absence and for offenses directly related thereto if before March 31, 1975 he takes an oath of allegiance to the United States and executes an agreement with the Secretary of the Military Department from which he absented himself or for members of the Coast Guard, with the Secretary of Transportation, pledging to fulfill a period of alternate service under the auspices of the Director of Selective Service. The alternate service shall promote the national health, safety, or interest.
The period of service shall be twenty-four months, which may be reduced by the Secretary of the appropriate Military Department, or Secretary of Transportation for members of the Coast Guard, because of mitigating circumstances.
However, if a member of the armed forces has additional outstanding charges pending against him under the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.], his eligibility to participate in this program may be conditioned upon, or postponed until after, final disposition of the additional charges has been reached in accordance with law.
Each member of the armed forces who elects to seek relief through this program will receive an undesirable discharge. Thereafter, upon satisfactory completion of a period of alternate service prescribed by the Military Department or Department of Transportation, such individual will be entitled to receive, in lieu of his undesirable discharge, a clemency discharge in recognition of his fulfillment of the requirements of the program. Such clemency discharge shall not bestow entitlement to benefits administered by the Veterans Administration.
Procedures of the Military Departments implementing this Proclamation will be in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary of Defense, present Military Department regulations notwithstanding.
3. Presidential Clemency Board—By Executive Order I have this date established a Presidential Clemency Board which will review the records of individuals within the following categories: (i) those who have been convicted of draft evasion offenses as described above, (ii) those who have received a punitive or undesirable discharge from service in the armed forces for having violated Article 85, 86, or 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 885, 886, 887] between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, or are serving sentences of confinement for such violations. Where appropriate, the Board may recommend that clemency be conditioned upon completion of a period of alternate service. However, if any clemency discharge is recommended, such discharge shall not bestow entitlement to benefits administered by the Veterans Administration.
4. Alternate Service—In prescribing the length of alternate service in individual cases, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the appropriate Department, or the Clemency Board shall take into account such honorable service as an individual may have rendered prior to his absence, penalties already paid under law, and such other mitigating factors as may be appropriate to seek equity among those who participate in this program.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of September in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred seventy-four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-nineth.
Gerald R. Ford.

Proc. No. 4483. Pardon for Violations of Act, August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973

Proc. No. 4483, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4391, 91 Stat. 1719, provided:
Acting pursuant to the grant of authority in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution of the United States, I, Jimmy Carter, President of the United States, do hereby grant a full, complete and unconditional pardon to: (1) all persons who may have committed any offense between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder; and (2) all persons heretofore convicted, irrespective of the date of conviction, of any offense committed between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, restoring to them full political, civil and other rights.
This pardon does not apply to the following who are specifically excluded therefrom:
(1) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, involving force or violence; and
(2) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, in connection with duties or responsibilities arising out of employment as agents, officers or employees of the Military Selective Service system.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 21st day of January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and first.
Jimmy Carter.

Ex. Ord. No. 11803. Clemency Board To Review Certain Convictions and Discharges

Ex. Ord. No. 11803, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33297, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11837, Jan. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 4895; Ex. Ord. No. 11842, Feb. 28, 1975, 40 F.R. 8935; Ex. Ord. No. 11857, May 7, 1975, 40 F.R. 20261; Ex. Ord. No. 11878, Sept. 10, 1975, 40 F.R. 42731, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by Section 2 of Article II of the Constitution of the United States, and in the interest of the internal management of the Government, it is ordered as follows:
Section 1. There is hereby established in the Executive Office of the President a board of 9 members, which shall be known as the Presidential Clemency Board. The members of the Board shall be appointed by the President, who shall also designate its Chairman. The President may appoint such additional members to the board as he shall from time to time determine to be necessary to carry out its functions.
Sec. 2. The Board, under such regulations as it may prescribe, shall examine the cases of persons who apply for Executive clemency prior to March 31, 1975, and who (i) have been convicted of violating Section 12 or 6(j) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. § 462) [this section and section 456 (j) of this Appendix], or of any rule or regulation promulgated pursuant to that section, for acts committed between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, inclusive, or (ii) have received punitive or undesirable discharges as a consequence of violations of Articles 85, 86 or 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. §§ 885, 886, 887) that occurred between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, inclusive, or are serving sentences of confinement for such violations. The Board will only consider the cases of Military Selective Service Act violators who were convicted of unlawfully failing (i) to register or register on time, (ii) to keep the local board informed of their current address, (iii) to report for or submit to preinduction or induction examination, (iv) to report for or submit to induction itself, or (v) to report for or submit to, or complete service under Section 6(j) of such Act [section 456 (j) of this Appendix]. However, the Board will not consider the cases of individuals who are precluded from reentering the United States under [former] 8 U.S.C. 182 (a)(22) or other law.
Sec. 3. The Board shall report to the President its findings and recommendations as to whether Executive clemency should be granted or denied in any case. If clemency is recommended, the Board shall also recommend the form that such clemency should take, including clemency conditioned upon a period of alternate service in the national interest. In the case of an individual discharged from the armed forces with a punitive or undesirable discharge, the Board may recommend to the President that a clemency discharge be substituted for a punitive or undesirable discharge. Determination of any period of alternate service shall be in accord with the Proclamation [Proc. No. 4313, set out above] announcing a program for the return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters.
Sec. 4. The Board shall give priority consideration to those applicants who are presently confined and have been convicted only of an offense set forth in section 2 of this order, and who have no outstanding criminal charges.
Sec. 5. Each member of the Board, except any member who then receives other compensation from the United States, may receive compensation for each day he or she is engaged upon the work of the Board at not to exceed the daily rate now or hereafter prescribed by law for persons and positions in GS–18, as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 3109), and may also receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5703) for persons in the government service employed intermittently.
Sec. 6. Necessary expenses of the Board may be paid from the Unanticipated Personnel Needs Fund of the President or from such other funds as may be available.
Sec. 7. Necessary administrative services and support may be provided the Board by the General Services Administration on a reimbursable basis.
Sec. 8. All department and agencies in the Executive branch are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Board in its work, and to furnish the Board all appropriate information and assistance, to the extent permitted by law.
Sec. 9. The Board shall submit its final recommendations to the President not later than September 15, 1975, at which time it shall cease to exist.
Gerald R. Ford.

Ex. Ord. No. 11804. Delegation of Certain Functions of President to Director of Selective Service

Ex. Ord. No. 11804, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33299, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, pursuant to my powers under Article II, Sections 1, 2 and 3 of the Constitution, and under Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The Director of Selective Service is designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification or other action of the President, under such regulations as he may prescribe, to establish, implement, and administer the program of alternate service authorized in the Proclamation [set out above] announcing a program for the return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters.
Sec. 2. Departments and agencies in the Executive branch shall, upon the request of the Director of Selective Service, cooperate and assist in the implementation or administration of the Director’s duties under this Order, to the extent permitted by law.
Gerald R. Ford.

Ex. Ord. No. 11878. Assigning Responsibilities Relating to Activities of Presidential Clemency Board

Ex. Ord. No. 11878, Sept. 10, 1975, 40 F.R. 42731, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution of the United States of America, and as President of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Section 9 of Executive Order No. 11803 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above] is amended to read:
“The Board shall submit its final recommendations to the President not later than September 15, 1975, at which time it shall cease to exist.”
Sec. 2. Any applications for Executive clemency, as to which the Presidential Clemency Board (established by Executive Order No. 11803) [set out above] has not taken final action shall be transferred, together with the files related thereto, to the Attorney General.
Sec. 3. The Attorney General, with respect to the applications and related files transferred to him by Section 2 of this Order, shall take all actions appropriate or necessary to complete the clemency process and shall expeditiously report to the President his findings and recommendations as to whether Executive clemency should be granted or denied in any case. In performing his responsibilities under this Order, the Attorney General shall apply the relevant criteria and comply with the appropriate and applicable instructions and procedures established by Executive Order No. 11803 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above], Proclamation No. 4313 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above], Executive Order No. 11804 of September 16, 1974 [set out above], and, to the extent that he deems appropriate, the regulations of the Presidential Clemency Board and the Selective Service System issued pursuant to the foregoing Executive orders.
Sec. 4. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is hereby designated and empowered to take such action as he deems necessary to ensure the orderly and prompt termination of the activities of the Presidential Clemency Board and the assignment of responsibilities directed by this Order.
Sec. 5. Departments and agencies in the Executive branch shall, to the extent permitted by law, cooperate with and assist the Attorney General, the Director of the Selective Service and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget in the performance of their responsibilities under this Order.
Sec. 6. The responsibilities assigned under this Order are to be completed no later than March 31, 1976, at which time the Attorney General shall submit his final recommendations to the President.
Gerald R. Ford.

Ex. Ord. No. 11967. Implementation of Pardon for Violations of Act, August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973

Ex. Ord. No. 11967, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4393, provided:
The following actions shall be taken to facilitate Presidential Proclamation of Pardon of January 21, 1977 [set out above]:
1. The Attorney General shall cause to be dismissed with prejudice to the Government all pending indictments for violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] alleged to have occurred between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 with the exception of the following:
(a) Those cases alleging acts of force or violence deemed to be so serious by the Attorney General as to warrant continued prosecution; and
(b) Those cases alleging acts in violation of the Military Selective Service Act by agents, employees or officers of the Selective Service System arising out of such employment.
2. The Attorney General shall terminate all investigations now pending and shall not initiate further investigations alleging violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, with the exception of the following:
(a) Those cases involving allegations of force or violence deemed to be so serious by the Attorney General as to warrant continued investigation, or possible prosecution; and
(b) Those cases alleging acts in violation of the Military Selective Service Act by agents, employees or officers of the Selective Service System arising out of such employment.
3. Any person who is or may be precluded from reentering the United States under [former] 8 U.S.C. 1182 (a)(22) or under any other law, by reason of having committed or apparently committed any violation of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] shall be permitted as any other alien to reenter the United States.
The Attorney General is directed to exercise his discretion under 8 U.S.C. 1182 (d)(5) or other applicable law to permit the reentry of such persons under the same terms and conditions as any other alien.
This shall not include anyone who falls into the exceptions of paragraphs 1(a) and (b) and 2(a) and (b) above.
4. Any individual offered conditional clemency or granted a pardon or other clemency under Executive Order 11803 [set out above] or Presidential Proclamation 4313, dated September 16, 1974 [set out above], shall receive the full measure of relief afforded by this program if they are otherwise qualified under the terms of this Executive Order.
Jimmy Carter.

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