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§ 2404. National security controls

(a) Authority
(1) In order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix], the President may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, prohibit or curtail the export of any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or exported by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The authority contained in this subsection includes the authority to prohibit or curtail the transfer of goods or technology within the United States to embassies and affiliates of controlled countries. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “affiliates” includes both governmental entities and commercial entities that are controlled in fact by controlled countries. The authority contained in this subsection shall be exercised by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, and such other departments and agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate, and shall be implemented by means of export licenses described in section 4(a) of this Act [section 2403 (a) of this Appendix].
(2) Whenever the Secretary makes any revision with respect to any goods or technology, or with respect to the countries or destinations, affected by export controls imposed under this section, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of such revision and shall specify in such notice that the revision relates to controls imposed under the authority contained in this section.
(3) In issuing regulations to carry out this section, particular attention shall be given to the difficulty of devising effective safeguards to prevent a country that poses a threat to the security of the United States from diverting critical technologies to military use, the difficulty of devising effective safeguards to protect critical goods, and the need to take effective measures to prevent the reexport of critical technologies from other countries to countries that pose a threat to the security of the United States.
(4)
(A) No authority or permission may be required under this section to reexport any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to any country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee, or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section. The Secretary may require any person reexporting any goods or technology under this subparagraph to notify the Secretary of such reexports.
(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Secretary may require authority or permission to reexport the following:
(i) supercomputers;
(ii) goods or technology for sensitive nuclear uses (as defined by the Secretary);
(iii) devices for surreptitious interception of wire or oral communications; and
(iv) goods or technology intended for such end users as the Secretary may specify by regulation.
(5)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no authority or permission may be required under this section to reexport any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States from any country when the goods or technology to be reexported are incorporated in another good and—
(i) the value of the controlled United States content of that other good is 25 percent or less of the total value of the good; or
(ii) the export of the goods or technology to a controlled country would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
For purposes of this paragraph, the “controlled United States content” of a good means those goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States which are incorporated in the good, if the export of those goods or technology from the United States to a country, at the time that the good is exported to that country, would require a validated license.
(B) The Secretary may by regulation provide that subparagraph (A) does not apply to the reexport of a supercomputer which contains goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(6) Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], the Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out paragraphs (4) and (5). Such regulations shall define the term “supercomputer” for purposes of those paragraphs.
(b) Policy toward individual countries
(1) In administering export controls for national security purposes under this section, the President shall establish as a list of controlled countries those countries set forth in section 620(f) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2370 (f)], except that the President may add any country to or remove any country from such list of controlled countries if he determines that the export of goods or technology to such country would or would not (as the case may be) make a significant contribution to the military potential of such country or a combination of countries which would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In determining whether a country is added to or removed from the list of controlled countries, the President shall take into account—
(A) the extent to which the country’s policies are adverse to the national security interests of the United States;
(B) the country’s Communist or non-Communist status;
(C) the present and potential relationship of the country with the United States;
(D) the present and potential relationships of the country with countries friendly or hostile to the United States;
(E) the country’s nuclear weapons capability and the country’s compliance record with respect to multilateral nuclear weapons agreements to which the United States is a party; and
(F) such other factors as the President considers appropriate.
Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be interpreted to limit the authority of the President provided in this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] to prohibit or curtail the export of any goods or technology to any country to which exports are controlled for national security purposes other than countries on the list of controlled countries specified in this paragraph. The President shall review not less frequently than every three years in the case of controls maintained cooperatively with other nations, and annually in the case of all other controls, United States policy toward individual countries to determine whether such policy is appropriate in light of the factors set forth in this paragraph.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no authority or permission may be required under this section to export goods or technology to a country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section, if the export of such goods or technology to the People’s Republic of China or a controlled country on the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988] would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
(B)
(i) The Secretary may require a license for the export of goods or technology described in subparagraph (A) to such end users as the Secretary may specify by regulation.
(ii) The Secretary may require any person exporting goods or technology under this paragraph to notify the Secretary of those exports.
(C) The Secretary shall, within 3 months after the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988], determine which countries referred to in subparagraph (A) are implementing an effective export control system consistent with principles agreed to in the Coordinating Committee, including the following:
(i) national laws providing appropriate civil and criminal penalties and statutes of limitations sufficient to deter potential violations;
(ii) a program to evaluate export license applications that includes sufficient technical expertise to assess the licensing status of exports and ensure the reliability of end-users;
(iii) an enforcement mechanism that provides authority for trained enforcement officers to investigate and prevent illegal exports;
(iv) a system of export control documentation to verify the movement of goods and technology; and
(v) procedures for the coordination and exchange of information concerning violations of the agreement of the Coordinating Committee.
The Secretary shall, at least once each year, review the determinations made under the preceding sentence with respect to all countries referred to in subparagraph (A). The Secretary may, as appropriate, add countries to, or remove countries from, the list of countries that are implementing an effective export control system in accordance with this subparagraph. No authority or permission to export may be required for the export of goods or technology to a country on such list.
(3)
(A) No authority or permission may be required under this section to export to any country, other than a controlled country, any goods or technology if the export of the goods or technology to controlled countries would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
(B) The Secretary may require any person exporting any goods or technology under subparagraph (A) to notify the Secretary of those exports.
(c) Control list
(1) The Secretary shall establish and maintain, as part of the control list, a list of all goods and technology subject to export controls under this section. Such goods and technology shall be clearly identified as being subject to controls under this section.
(2) The Secretary of Defense and other appropriate departments and agencies shall identify goods and technology for inclusion on the list referred to in paragraph (1). Those items which the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense concur shall be subject to export controls under this section shall comprise such list. If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense are unable to concur on such items, as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense may, within 20 days after receiving notification of the Secretary’s determination, refer the matter to the President for resolution. The Secretary of Defense shall notify the Secretary of any such referral. The President shall, not later than 20 days after such referral, notify the Secretary of his determination with respect to the inclusion of such items on the list. Failure of the Secretary of Defense to notify the President or the Secretary, or failure of the President to notify the Secretary, in accordance with this paragraph, shall be deemed by the Secretary to constitute concurrence in the implementation of the actions proposed by the Secretary regarding the inclusion of such items on the list.
(3) The Secretary shall conduct partial reviews of the list established pursuant to this subsection at least once each calendar quarter in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix] and the provisions of this section, and shall promptly make such revisions of the list as may be necessary after each such review. Before beginning each quarterly review, the Secretary shall publish notice of that review in the Federal Register. The Secretary shall provide a 30-day period during each review for comment and the submission of data, with or without oral presentation, by interested Government agencies and other affected or potentially affected parties. After consultation with appropriate Government agencies, the Secretary shall make a determination of any revisions in the list within 30 days after the end of the review period. The concurrence or approval of any other department or agency is not required before any such revision is made. The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register any revisions in the list, with an explanation of the reasons for the revisions. The Secretary shall use the data developed from each review in formulating United States proposals relating to multilateral export controls in the group known as the Coordinating Committee. The Secretary shall further assess, as part of each review, the availability from sources outside the United States of goods and technology comparable to those subject to export controls imposed under this section. All goods and technology on the list shall be reviewed at least once each year. The provisions of this paragraph apply to revisions of the list which consist of removing items from the list or making changes in categories of, or other specifications in, items on the list.
(4) The appropriate technical advisory committee appointed under subsection (h) of this section shall be consulted by the Secretary with respect to changes, pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3), in the list established pursuant to this subsection, and such technical advisory committee may submit recommendations to the Secretary with respect to such changes. The Secretary shall consider the recommendations of the technical advisory committee and shall inform the committee of the disposition of its recommendations.
(5)
(A) Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], the following shall no longer be subject to export controls under this section:
(i) All goods or technology the export of which to controlled countries on the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988] would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee, except for those goods or technology on which the Coordinating Committee agrees to maintain such notification requirement.
(ii) All medical instruments and equipment, subject to the provisions of subsection (m) of this section.
(B) The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually a report setting forth the goods and technology from which export controls have been removed under this paragraph.
(6)
(A) Notwithstanding subsection (f) or (h)(6) of this section, any export control imposed under this section which is maintained unilaterally by the United States shall expire 6 months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], or 6 months after the export control is imposed, whichever date is later, except that—
(i) any such export controls on those goods or technology for which a determination of the Secretary that there is no foreign availability has been made under subsection (f) or (h)(6) of this section before the end of the applicable 6-month period and is in effect may be renewed for periods of not more than 6 months each, and
(ii) any such export controls on those goods or technology with respect to which the President, by the end of the applicable 6-month period, is actively pursuing negotiations with other countries to achieve multilateral export controls on those goods or technology may be renewed for 2 periods of not more than 6 months each.
(B) Export controls on goods or technology described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) may be renewed only if, before each renewal, the President submits to the Congress a report setting forth all the controls being renewed and stating the specific reasons for such renewal.
(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, after 1 year has elapsed since the last review in the Federal Register on any item within a category on the control list the export of which to the People’s Republic of China would require only notification of the members of the group known as the Coordinating Committee, an export license applicant may file an allegation with the Secretary that such item has not been so reviewed within such 1-year period. Within 90 days after receipt of such allegation, the Secretary—
(A) shall determine the truth of the allegation;
(B) shall, if the allegation is confirmed, commence and complete the review of the item; and
(C) shall, pursuant to such review, submit a finding for publication in the Federal Register.
In such finding, the Secretary shall identify those goods or technology which shall remain on the control list and those goods or technology which shall be removed from the control list. If such review and submission for publication are not completed within that 90-day period, the goods or technology encompassed by such item shall immediately be removed from the control list.
(d) Militarily critical technologies
(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall review and revise the list established pursuant to subsection (c), as prescribed in paragraph (3) of such subsection, for the purpose of insuring that export controls imposed under this section cover and (to the maximum extent consistent with the purposes of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]) are limited to militarily critical goods and technologies and the mechanisms through which such goods and technologies may be effectively transferred.
(2) The Secretary of Defense shall bear primary responsibility for developing a list of militarily critical technologies. In developing such list, primary emphasis shall be given to—
(A) arrays of design and manufacturing know-how,
(B) keystone manufacturing, inspection, and test equipment,
(C) goods accompanied by sophisticated operation, application, or maintenance know-how, and
(D) keystone equipment which would reveal or give insight into the design and manufacture of a United States military system,
which are not possessed by, or available in fact from sources outside the United States to, controlled countries and which, if exported, would permit a significant advance in a military system of any such country.
(3) The list referred to in paragraph (2) shall be sufficiently specific to guide the determinations of any official exercising export licensing responsibilities under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix].
(4) The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense shall integrate items on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list in accordance with the requirements of subsection (c) of this section. The integration of items on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list shall proceed with all deliberate speed. Any disagreement between the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense regarding the integration of an item on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list shall be resolved by the President. Except in the case of a good or technology for which a validated license may be required under subsection (f)(4) or (h)(6) of this section, a good or technology shall be included on the control list only if the Secretary finds that controlled countries do not possess that good or technology, or a functionally equivalent good or technology, and the good or technology or functionally equivalent good or technology is not available in fact to a controlled country from sources outside the United States in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that the requirement of a validated license for the export of such good or technology is or would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense shall jointly submit a report to the Congress, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 [July 12, 1985], on actions taken to carry out this paragraph. For the purposes of this paragraph, assessment of whether a good or technology is functionally equivalent shall include consideration of the factors described in subsection (f)(3) of this section.
(5) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a procedure for reviewing the goods and technology on the list of militarily critical technologies on an ongoing basis for the purpose of removing from the list of militarily critical technologies any goods or technology that are no longer militarily critical. The Secretary of Defense may add to the list of militarily critical technologies any good or technology that the Secretary of Defense determines is militarily critical, consistent with the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection. If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense disagree as to whether any change in the list of militarily critical technologies by the addition or removal of a good or technology should also be made in the control list, consistent with the provisions of the fourth sentence of paragraph (4) of this subsection, the President shall resolve the disagreement.
(6) The establishment of adequate export controls for militarily critical technology and keystone equipment shall be accompanied by suitable reductions in the controls on the products of that technology and equipment.
(7) The Secretary of Defense shall, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 [July 12, 1985], report to the Congress on efforts by the Department of Defense to assess the impact that the transfer of goods or technology on the list of militarily critical technologies to controlled countries has had or will have on the military capabilities of those countries.
(e) Export licenses
(1) The Congress finds that the effectiveness and efficiency of the process of making export licensing determinations under this section is severely hampered by the large volume of validated export license applications required to be submitted under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. Accordingly, it is the intent of Congress in this subsection to encourage the use of the multiple validated export licenses described in section 4(a)(2) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2) of this Appendix] in lieu of individual validated licenses.
(2) To the maximum extent practicable, consistent with the national security of the United States, the Secretary shall require a validated license under this section for the export of goods or technology only if—
(A) the export of such goods or technology is restricted pursuant to a multilateral agreement, formal or informal, to which the United States is a party and, under the terms of such multilateral agreement, such export requires the specific approval of the parties to such multilateral agreement;
(B) with respect to such goods or technology, other nations do not possess capabilities comparable to those possessed by the United States; or
(C) the United States is seeking the agreement of other suppliers to apply comparable controls to such goods or technology and, in the judgment of the Secretary, United States export controls on such goods or technology, by means of such license, are necessary pending the conclusion of such agreement.
(3) The Secretary, subject to the provisions of subsection (l) of this section, shall not require an individual validated export license for replacement parts which are exported to replace on a one-for-one basis parts that were in a good that has been lawfully exported from the United States.
(4) The Secretary shall periodically review the procedures with respect to the multiple validated export licenses, taking appropriate action to increase their utilization by reducing qualification requirements or lowering minimum thresholds, to combine procedures which overlap, and to eliminate those procedures which appear to be of marginal utility.
(5) The export of goods subject to export controls under this section shall be eligible, at the discretion of the Secretary, for a distribution license and other licenses authorizing multiple exports of goods, in accordance with section 4(a)(2) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2) of this Appendix]. The export of technology and related goods subject to export controls under this section shall be eligible for a comprehensive operations license in accordance with section 4(a)(2)(B) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2)(B) of this Appendix].
(6) Any application for a license for the export to the People’s Republic of China of any good on which export controls are in effect under this section, without regard to the technical specifications of the good, for the purpose of demonstration or exhibition at a trade show shall carry a presumption of approval if—
(A) the United States exporter retains title to the good during the entire period in which the good is in the People’s Republic of China; and
(B) the exporter removes the good from the People’s Republic of China no later than at the conclusion of the trade show.
(f) Foreign availability
(1) Foreign availability to controlled countries
(A) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and other appropriate Government agencies and with appropriate technical advisory committees established pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, shall review, on a continuing basis, the availability to controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, of any goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section. In any case in which the Secretary determines, in accordance with procedures and criteria which the Secretary shall by regulation establish, that any such goods or technology are available in fact to controlled countries from such sources in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that the requirement of a validated license for the export of such goods or technology is or would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary may not, after the determination is made, require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology during the period of such foreign availability, unless the President determines that the absence of export controls under this section on the goods or technology would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the President determines under this paragraph that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding foreign availability, the Secretary shall publish that determination, together with a concise statement of its basis and the estimated economic impact of the decision.
(B) The Secretary shall approve any application for a validated license which is required under this section for the export of any goods or technology to a controlled country and which meets all other requirements for such an application, if the Secretary determines that such goods or technology will, if the license is denied, be available in fact to such country from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that denial of the license would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, unless the President determines that approving the license application would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the Secretary makes a determination of foreign availability under this subparagraph with respect to any goods or technology, the Secretary shall determine whether a determination of foreign availability under subparagraph (A) with respect to such goods or technology is warranted.
(2) Foreign availability to other than controlled countries
(A) The Secretary shall review, on a continuing basis, the availability to countries other than controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, of any goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section. If the Secretary determines, in accordance with procedures which the Secretary shall establish, that any goods or technology in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality are available in fact from sources outside the United States (other than availability under license from a country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section), the Secretary may not, after the determination is made and during the period of such foreign availability, require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to any country (other than a controlled country) to which the country from which the goods or technology is available does not place controls on the export of such goods or technology. The requirement with respect to a validated license in the preceding sentence shall not apply if the President determines that the absence of export controls under this section on the goods or technology would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the President determines under this paragraph that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding foreign availability, the Secretary shall publish that determination, together with a concise statement of its basis and the estimated economic impact of the decision.
(B) The Secretary shall approve any application for a validated license which is required under this section for the export of any goods or technology to a country (other than a controlled country) and which meets all other requirements for such an application, if the Secretary determines that such goods or technology are available from foreign sources to that country under the criteria established in subparagraph (A), unless the President determines that approving the license application would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the Secretary makes a determination of foreign availability under this subparagraph with respect to any goods or technology, the Secretary shall determine whether a determination of foreign availability under subparagraph (A) with respect to such goods or technology is warranted.
(3) Procedures for making determinations
(A) The Secretary shall make a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1) or (2) on the Secretary’s own initiative or upon receipt of an allegation from an export license applicant that such availability exists. In making any such determination, the Secretary shall accept the representations of applicants made in writing and supported by reasonable evidence, unless such representations are contradicted by reliable evidence, including scientific or physical examination, expert opinion based upon adequate factual information, or intelligence information. In making determinations of foreign availability, the Secretary may consider such factors as cost, reliability, the availability and reliability of spare parts and the cost and quality thereof, maintenance programs, durability, quality of end products produced by the item proposed for export, and scale of production. For purposes of this subparagraph, “evidence” may include such items as foreign manufacturers’ catalogues, brochures, or operations or maintenance manuals, articles from reputable trade publications, photographs, and depositions based upon eyewitness accounts.
(B) In a case in which an allegation is received from an export license applicant, the Secretary shall, upon receipt of the allegation, submit for publication in the Federal Register notice of such receipt. Within 4 months after receipt of the allegation, the Secretary shall determine whether the foreign availability exists, and shall so notify the applicant. If the Secretary has determined that the foreign availability exists, the Secretary shall, upon making such determination, submit the determination for review to other departments and agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary’s determination of foreign availability does not require the concurrence or approval of any official, department, or agency to which such a determination is submitted. Not later than 1 month after the Secretary makes the determination, the Secretary shall respond in writing to the applicant and submit for publication in the Federal Register, that—
(i) the foreign availability does exist and—
(I) the requirement of a validated license has been removed,
(II) the President has determined that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding the foreign availability and the applicable steps are being taken under paragraph (4), or
(III) in the case of a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1), the foreign availability determination will be submitted to a multilateral review process in accordance with the agreement of the Coordinating Committee for a period of not more than 4 months beginning on the date of the publication; or
(ii) the foreign availability does not exist.
In any case in which the submission for publication is not made within the time period specified in the preceding sentence, the Secretary may not thereafter require a license for the export of the goods or technology with respect to which the foreign availability allegation was made. In the case of a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1) to which clause (i)(III) applies, no license for such export may be required after the end of the 9-month period beginning on the date on which the allegation is received.
(4) Negotiations to eliminate foreign availability
(A) In any case in which export controls are maintained under this section notwithstanding foreign availability, on account of a determination by the President that the absence of the controls would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States, the President shall actively pursue negotiations with the governments of the appropriate foreign countries for the purpose of eliminating such availability. No later than the commencement of such negotiations, the President shall notify in writing the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives that he has begun such negotiations and why he believes it is important to national security that export controls on the goods or technology involved be maintained.
(B) If, within 6 months after the President’s determination that export controls be maintained, the foreign availability has not been eliminated, the Secretary may not, after the end of that 6-month period, require a validated license for the export of the goods or technology involved. The President may extend the 6-month period described in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 12 months if the President certifies to the Congress that the negotiations involved are progressing and that the absence of the export controls involved would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. Whenever the President has reason to believe that goods or technology subject to export controls for national security purposes by the United States may become available from other countries to controlled countries and that such availability can be prevented or eliminated by means of negotiations with such other countries, the President shall promptly initiate negotiations with the governments of such other countries to prevent such foreign availability.
(C) After an agreement is reached with a country pursuant to negotiations under this paragraph to eliminate or prevent foreign availability of goods or technology, the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to that country.
(5) Expedited licenses for items available to countries other than controlled countries
(A) In any case in which the Secretary finds that any goods or technology from foreign sources is of similar quality to goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section and is available to a country other than a controlled country without effective restrictions, the Secretary shall designate such goods or technology as eligible for export to such country under this paragraph.
(B) In the case of goods or technology designated under subparagraph (A), then 20 working days after the date of formal filing with the Secretary of an individual validated license application for the export of those goods or technology to an eligible country, a license for the transaction specified in the application shall become valid and effective and the goods or technology are authorized for export pursuant to such license unless the license has been denied by the Secretary on account of an inappropriate end user. The Secretary may extend the 20-day period provided in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 15 days if the Secretary requires additional time to consider the application and so notifies the applicant.
(C) The Secretary may make a foreign availability determination under subparagraph (A) on the Secretary’s own initiative, upon receipt of an allegation from an export license applicant that such availability exists, or upon the submission of a certification by a technical advisory committee of appropriate jurisdiction that such availability exists. Upon receipt of such an allegation or certification, the Secretary shall publish notice of such allegation or certification in the Federal Register and shall make the foreign availability determination within 30 days after such receipt and publish the determination in the Federal Register. In the case of the failure of the Secretary to make and publish such determination within that 30-day period, the goods or technology involved shall be deemed to be designated as eligible for export to the country or countries involved, for purposes of subparagraph (B).
(D) The provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) do not apply with respect to determinations of foreign availability under this paragraph.
(6) Office of Foreign Availability
The Secretary shall establish in the Department of Commerce an Office of Foreign Availability, which shall be under the direction of the Under Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration. The Office shall be responsible for gathering and analyzing all the necessary information in order for the Secretary to make determinations of foreign availability under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. The Secretary shall make available to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate at the end of each 6-month period during a fiscal year information on the operations of the Office, and on improvements in the Government’s ability to assess foreign availability, during that 6-month period, including information on the training of personnel, the use of computers, and the use of Commercial Service Officers of the United States and Foreign Commercial Service. Such information shall also include a description of representative determinations made under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] during that 6-month period that foreign availability did or did not exist (as the case may be), together with an explanation of such determinations.
(7) Sharing of information
Each department or agency of the United States, including any intelligence agency, and all contractors with any such department or agency, shall, upon the request of the Secretary and consistent with the protection of intelligence sources and methods, furnish information to the Office of Foreign Availability concerning foreign availability of goods and technology subject to export controls under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. Each such department or agency shall allow the Office of Foreign Availability access to any information from a laboratory or other facility within such department or agency.
(8) Removal of controls on less sophisticated goods or technology
In any case in which [1] Secretary may not, pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of this subsection or paragraph (6) of subsection (h) of this section, require a validated license for the export of goods or technology, then the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of any similar goods or technology whose function, technological approach, performance thresholds, and other attributes that form the basis for export controls under this section do not exceed the technical parameters of the goods or technology from which the validated license requirement is removed under the applicable paragraph.
(9) Notice of all foreign availability assessments
Whenever the Secretary undertakes a foreign availability assessment under this subsection or subsection (h)(6), the Secretary shall publish notice of such assessment in the Federal Register.
(10) Availability defined
For purposes of this subsection and subsections (f) and (h), the term “available in fact to controlled countries” includes production or availability of any goods or technology in any country—
(A) from which the goods or technology is not restricted for export to any controlled country; or
(B) in which such export restrictions are determined by the Secretary to be ineffective.
For purposes of subparagraph (B), the mere inclusion of goods or technology on a list of goods or technology subject to bilateral or multilateral national security export controls shall not alone constitute credible evidence that a country provides an effective means of controlling the export of such goods or technology to controlled countries.
(g) Indexing
(1) In order to ensure that requirements for validated licenses and other licenses authorizing multiple exports are periodically removed as goods or technology subject to such requirements becomes obsolete with respect to the national security of the United States, regulations issued by the Secretary may, where appropriate, provide for annual increases in the performance levels of goods or technology subject to any such licensing requirement. The regulations issued by the Secretary shall establish as one criterion for the removal of goods or technology from such license requirements the anticipated needs of the military of controlled countries. Any such goods or technology which no longer meets the performance levels established by the regulations shall be removed from the list established pursuant to subsection (c) of this section unless, under such exceptions and under such procedures as the Secretary shall prescribe, any other department or agency of the United States objects to such removal and the Secretary determines, on the basis of such objection, that the goods or technology shall not be removed from the list. The Secretary shall also consider, where appropriate, removing site visitation requirements for goods and technology which are removed from the list unless objections described in this subsection are raised.
(2)
(A) In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall conduct annual reviews of the performance levels of goods or technology—
(i) which are eligible for export under a distribution license,
(ii) below which exports to the People’s Republic of China require only notification of the governments participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee, and
(iii) below which no authority or permission to export may be required under subsection (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section.
The Secretary shall make appropriate adjustments to such performance levels based on these reviews.
(B) In any case in which the Secretary receives a request which—
(i) is to revise the qualification requirements or minimum thresholds of any goods eligible for export under a distribution license, and
(ii) is made by an exporter of such goods, representatives of an industry which produces such goods, or a technical advisory committee established under subsection (h) of this section,
the Secretary, after consulting with other appropriate Government agencies and technical advisory committees established under subsection (h) of this section, shall determine whether to make such revision, or some other appropriate revision, in such qualification requirements or minimum thresholds. In making this determination, the Secretary shall take into account the availability of the goods from sources outside the United States. The Secretary shall make a determination on a request made under this subparagraph within 90 days after the date on which the request is filed. If the Secretary’s determination pursuant to such a request is to make a revision, such revision shall be implemented within 120 days after the date on which the request is filed and shall be published in the Federal Register.
(h) Technical advisory committees
(1) Upon written request by representatives of a substantial segment of any industry which produces any goods or technology subject to export controls under this section or being considered for such controls because of their significance to the national security of the United States, the Secretary shall appoint a technical advisory committee for any such goods or technology which the Secretary determines are difficult to evaluate because of questions concerning technical matters, worldwide availability, and actual utilization of production and technology, or licensing procedures. Each such committee shall consist of representatives of United States industry and Government, including the Departments of Commerce, Defense, and State, the intelligence community, and, in the discretion of the Secretary, other Government departments and agencies. No person serving on any such committee who is a representative of industry shall serve on such committee for more than four consecutive years.
(2) Technical advisory committees established under paragraph (1) shall advise and assist the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, and any other department, agency, or official of the Government of the United States to which the President delegates authority under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], with respect to actions designed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix]. Such committees, where they have expertise in such matters, shall be consulted with respect to questions involving
(A) technical matters,
(B) worldwide availability and actual utilization of production technology,
(C) licensing procedures which affect the level of export controls applicable to any goods or technology,
(D) revisions of the control list (as provided in subsection (c)(4)), including proposed revisions of multilateral controls in which the United States participates,
(E) the issuance of regulations, and
(F) any other questions relating to actions designed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix]. Nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Secretary or the Secretary of Defense from consulting, at any time, with any person representing industry or the general public, regardless of whether such person is a member of a technical advisory committee. Members of the public shall be given a reasonable opportunity, pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to present evidence to such committees.
(3) Upon request of any member of any such committee, the Secretary may, if the Secretary determines it appropriate, reimburse such member for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by such member in connection with the duties of such member.
(4) Each such committee shall elect a chairman, and shall meet at least every three months at the call of the chairman, unless the chairman determines, in consultation with the other members of the committee, that such a meeting is not necessary to achieve the purposes of this subsection. Each such committee shall be terminated after a period of 2 years, unless extended by the Secretary for additional periods of 2 years. The Secretary shall consult each such committee with respect to such termination or extension of that committee.
(5) To facilitate the work of the technical advisory committees, the Secretary, in conjunction with other departments and agencies participating in the administration of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], shall disclose to each such committee adequate information, consistent with national security, pertaining to the reasons for the export controls which are in effect or contemplated for the goods or technology with respect to which that committee furnishes advice.
(6) Whenever a technical advisory committee certifies to the Secretary that goods or technology with respect to which such committee was appointed have become available in fact, to controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that requiring a validated license for the export of such goods or technology would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the technical advisory committee shall submit that certification to the Congress at the same time the certification is made to the Secretary, together with the documentation for the certification. The Secretary shall investigate the foreign availability so certified and, not later than 90 days after the certification is made, shall submit a report to the technical advisory committee and the Congress stating that—
(A) the Secretary has removed the requirement of a validated license for the export of the goods or technology, on account of the foreign availability,
(B) the Secretary has recommended to the President that negotiations be conducted to eliminate the foreign availability, or
(C) the Secretary has determined on the basis of the investigation that the foreign availability does not exist.
To the extent necessary, the report may be submitted on a classified basis. In any case in which the Secretary has recommended to the President that negotiations be conducted to eliminate the foreign availability, the President shall actively pursue such negotiations with the governments of the appropriate foreign countries. If, within 6 months after the Secretary submits such report to the Congress, the foreign availability has not been eliminated, the Secretary may not, after the end of that 6-month period, require a validated license for the export of the goods or technology involved. The President may extend the 6-month period described in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 12 months if the President certifies to the Congress that the negotiations involved are progressing and that the absence of the export control involved would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. After an agreement is reached with a country pursuant to negotiations under this paragraph to eliminate foreign availability of goods or technology, the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to that country.
(i) Multilateral export controls
Recognizing the ineffectiveness of unilateral controls and the importance of uniform enforcement measures to the effectiveness of multilateral controls, the President shall enter into negotiations with the governments participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “Committee”) with a view toward accomplishing the following objectives:
(1) Enhanced public understanding of the Committee’s purpose and procedures, including publication of the list of items controlled for export by agreement of the Committee, together with all notes, understandings, and other aspects of such agreement of the Committee, and all changes thereto.
(2) Periodic meetings of high-level representatives of participating governments for the purpose of coordinating export control policies and issuing policy guidance to the Committee.
(3) Strengthened legal basis for each government’s export control system, including, as appropriate, increased penalties and statutes of limitations.
(4) Harmonization of export control documentation by the participating governments to verify the movement of goods and technology subject to controls by the Committee.
(5) Improved procedures for coordination and exchange of information concerning violations of the agreement of the Committee.
(6) Procedures for effective implementation of the agreement through uniform and consistent interpretations of export controls agreed to by the governments participating in the Committee.
(7) Coordination of national licensing and enforcement efforts by governments participating in the Committee, including sufficient technical expertise to assess the licensing status of exports and to ensure end-use verification.
(8) More effective procedures for enforcing export controls, including adequate training, resources, and authority for enforcement officers to investigate and prevent illegal exports.
(9) Agreement to provide adequate resources to enhance the functioning of individual national export control systems and of the Committee.
(10) Improved enforcement and compliance with the agreement through elimination of unnecessary export controls and maintenance of an effective control list.
(11) Agreement to enhance cooperation among members of the Committee in obtaining the agreement of governments outside the Committee to restrict the export of goods and technology on the International Control List, to establish an ongoing mechanism in the Committee to coordinate planning and implementation of export control measures related to such agreements, and to remove items from the International Control List if such items continue to be available to controlled countries or if the control of the items no longer serves the common strategic objectives of the members of the Committee.
For purposes of reviews of the International Control List, the President may include as advisors to the United States delegation to the Committee representatives of industry who are knowledgeable with respect to the items being reviewed.
(j) Commercial agreements with certain countries
(1) Any United States firm, enterprise, or other nongovernmental entity which enters into an agreement with any agency of the government of a controlled country, that calls for the encouragement of technical cooperation and that is intended to result in the export from the United States to the other party of unpublished technical data of United States origin, shall report to the Secretary the agreement with such agency in sufficient detail.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply to colleges, universities, or other educational institutions.
(k) Negotiations with other countries
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce, and the heads of other appropriate departments and agencies, shall be responsible for conducting negotiations with other countries, including those countries not participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee, regarding their cooperation in restricting the export of goods and technology in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(9) of this Act [section 2402 (9) of this Appendix], as authorized by subsection (a) of this section, including negotiations with respect to which goods and technology should be subject to multilaterally agreed export restrictions and what conditions should apply for exceptions from those restrictions. In cases where such negotiations produce agreements on export restrictions comparable in practice to those maintained by the Coordinating Committee, the Secretary shall treat exports, whether by individual or multiple licenses, to countries party to such agreements in the same manner as exports to members of the Coordinating Committee are treated, including the same manner as exports are treated under subsection (b)(2) of this section and section 10(o) of this Act [section 2409 (o) of this Appendix].
(l) Diversion of controlled goods or technology
(1) Whenever there is reliable evidence, as determined by the Secretary, that goods or technology which were exported subject to national security controls under this section to a controlled country have been diverted to an unauthorized use or consignee in violation of the conditions of an export license, the Secretary for as long as that diversion continues—
(A) shall deny all further exports, to or by the party or parties responsible for that diversion or who conspired in that diversion, of any goods or technology subject to national security controls under this section, regardless of whether such goods or technology are available from sources outside the United States; and
(B) may take such additional actions under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] with respect to the party or parties referred to in subparagraph (A) as the Secretary determines are appropriate in the circumstances to deter the further unauthorized use of the previously exported goods or technology.
(2) As used in this subsection, the term “unauthorized use” means the use of United States goods or technology in the design, production, or maintenance of any item on the United States Munitions List, or the military use of any item on the International Control List of the Coordinating Committee.
(m) Goods containing controlled parts and components
Export controls may not be imposed under this section, or under any other provision of law, on a good solely on the basis that the good contains parts or components subject to export controls under this section if such parts or components—
(1) are essential to the functioning of the good,
(2) are customarily included in sales of the good in countries other than controlled countries, and
(3) comprise 25 percent or less of the total value of the good,
unless the good itself, if exported, would by virtue of the functional characteristics of the good as a whole make a significant contribution to the military potential of a controlled country which would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States.
(n) Security measures
The Secretary and the Commissioner of Customs, consistent with their authorities under section 12(a) of this Act [section 2411 (a) of this Appendix], and in consultation with the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shall provide advice and technical assistance to persons engaged in the manufacture or handling of goods or technology subject to export controls under this section to develop security systems to prevent violations or evasions of those export controls.
(o) Recordkeeping
The Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, and any other department or agency consulted in connection with a license application under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] or a revision of a list of goods or technology subject to export controls under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], shall make and keep records of their respective advice, recommendations, or decisions in connection with any such license application or revision, including the factual and analytical basis of the advice, recommendations, or decisions.
(p) National Security Control Office
To assist in carrying out the policy and other authorities and responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense under this section, there is established in the Department of Defense a National Security Control Office under the direction of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. The Secretary of Defense may delegate to that office such of those authorities and responsibilities, together with such ancillary functions, as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.
(q) Exclusion for agricultural commodities
This section does not authorize export controls on agricultural commodities, including fats, oils, and animal hides and skins.


[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by “the”.

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