12 U.S. Code § 5565 - Relief available

(a) Administrative proceedings or court actions
(1) Jurisdiction
The court (or the Bureau, as the case may be) in an action or adjudication proceeding brought under Federal consumer financial law, shall have jurisdiction to grant any appropriate legal or equitable relief with respect to a violation of Federal consumer financial law, including a violation of a rule or order prescribed under a Federal consumer financial law.
(2) Relief
Relief under this section may include, without limitation—
(A) rescission or reformation of contracts;
(B) refund of moneys or return of real property;
(C) restitution;
(D) disgorgement or compensation for unjust enrichment;
(E) payment of damages or other monetary relief;
(F) public notification regarding the violation, including the costs of notification;
(G) limits on the activities or functions of the person; and
(H) civil money penalties, as set forth more fully in subsection (c).
(3) No exemplary or punitive damages
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as authorizing the imposition of exemplary or punitive damages.
(b) Recovery of costs
In any action brought by the Bureau, a State attorney general, or any State regulator to enforce any Federal consumer financial law, the Bureau, the State attorney general, or the State regulator may recover its costs in connection with prosecuting such action if the Bureau, the State attorney general, or the State regulator is the prevailing party in the action.
(c) Civil money penalty in court and administrative actions
(1) In general
Any person that violates, through any act or omission, any provision of Federal consumer financial law shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty pursuant to this subsection.
(2) Penalty amounts
(A) First tier
For any violation of a law, rule, or final order or condition imposed in writing by the Bureau, a civil penalty may not exceed $5,000 for each day during which such violation or failure to pay continues.
(B) Second tier
Notwithstanding paragraph (A), for any person that recklessly engages in a violation of a Federal consumer financial law, a civil penalty may not exceed $25,000 for each day during which such violation continues.
(C) Third tier
Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), for any person that knowingly violates a Federal consumer financial law, a civil penalty may not exceed $1,000,000 for each day during which such violation continues.
(3) Mitigating factors
In determining the amount of any penalty assessed under paragraph (2), the Bureau or the court shall take into account the appropriateness of the penalty with respect to—
(A) the size of financial resources and good faith of the person charged;
(B) the gravity of the violation or failure to pay;
(C) the severity of the risks to or losses of the consumer, which may take into account the number of products or services sold or provided;
(D) the history of previous violations; and
(E) such other matters as justice may require.
(4) Authority to modify or remit penalty
The Bureau may compromise, modify, or remit any penalty which may be assessed or had already been assessed under paragraph (2). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, shall be exclusive of any sums owed by the person to the United States in connection with the costs of the proceeding, and may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged.
(5) Notice and hearing
No civil penalty may be assessed under this subsection with respect to a violation of any Federal consumer financial law, unless—
(A) the Bureau gives notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the person accused of the violation; or
(B) the appropriate court has ordered such assessment and entered judgment in favor of the Bureau.


(Pub. L. 111–203, title X, § 1055,July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2029.)
Effective Date

Section effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1058 ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 5561 of this title.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

12 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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