15 U.S. Code § 1114 - Remedies; infringement; innocent infringement by printers and publishers

(1) Any person who shall, without the consent of the registrant—
(a) use in commerce any reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable imitation of a registered mark in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of any goods or services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive; or
(b) reproduce, counterfeit, copy, or colorably imitate a registered mark and apply such reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable imitation to labels, signs, prints, packages, wrappers, receptacles or advertisements intended to be used in commerce upon or in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of goods or services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive,
shall be liable in a civil action by the registrant for the remedies hereinafter provided. Under subsection (b) hereof, the registrant shall not be entitled to recover profits or damages unless the acts have been committed with knowledge that such imitation is intended to be used to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive.
As used in this paragraph, the term “any person” includes the United States, all agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and all individuals, firms, corporations, or other persons acting for the United States and with the authorization and consent of the United States, and any State, any instrumentality of a State, and any officer or employee of a State or instrumentality of a State acting in his or her official capacity. The United States, all agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and all individuals, firms, corporations, other persons acting for the United States and with the authorization and consent of the United States, and any State, and any such instrumentality, officer, or employee, shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter in the same manner and to the same extent as any nongovernmental entity.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the remedies given to the owner of a right infringed under this chapter or to a person bringing an action under section 1125 (a) or (d) of this title shall be limited as follows:
(A) Where an infringer or violator is engaged solely in the business of printing the mark or violating matter for others and establishes that he or she was an innocent infringer or innocent violator, the owner of the right infringed or person bringing the action under section 1125 (a) of this title shall be entitled as against such infringer or violator only to an injunction against future printing.
(B) Where the infringement or violation complained of is contained in or is part of paid advertising matter in a newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical or in an electronic communication as defined in section 2510 (12) of title 18, the remedies of the owner of the right infringed or person bringing the action under section 1125 (a) of this title as against the publisher or distributor of such newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical or electronic communication shall be limited to an injunction against the presentation of such advertising matter in future issues of such newspapers, magazines, or other similar periodicals or in future transmissions of such electronic communications. The limitations of this subparagraph shall apply only to innocent infringers and innocent violators.
(C) Injunctive relief shall not be available to the owner of the right infringed or person bringing the action under section 1125 (a) of this title with respect to an issue of a newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical or an electronic communication containing infringing matter or violating matter where restraining the dissemination of such infringing matter or violating matter in any particular issue of such periodical or in an electronic communication would delay the delivery of such issue or transmission of such electronic communication after the regular time for such delivery or transmission, and such delay would be due to the method by which publication and distribution of such periodical or transmission of such electronic communication is customarily conducted in accordance with sound business practice, and not due to any method or device adopted to evade this section or to prevent or delay the issuance of an injunction or restraining order with respect to such infringing matter or violating matter.
(D)
(i)
(I) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority that takes any action described under clause (ii) affecting a domain name shall not be liable for monetary relief or, except as provided in subclause (II), for injunctive relief, to any person for such action, regardless of whether the domain name is finally determined to infringe or dilute the mark.
(II) A domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority described in subclause (I) may be subject to injunctive relief only if such registrar, registry, or other registration authority has—
(aa) not expeditiously deposited with a court, in which an action has been filed regarding the disposition of the domain name, documents sufficient for the court to establish the court’s control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name;
(bb) transferred, suspended, or otherwise modified the domain name during the pendency of the action, except upon order of the court; or
(cc) willfully failed to comply with any such court order.
(ii) An action referred to under clause (i)(I) is any action of refusing to register, removing from registration, transferring, temporarily disabling, or permanently canceling a domain name—
(I) in compliance with a court order under section 1125 (d) of this title; or
(II) in the implementation of a reasonable policy by such registrar, registry, or authority prohibiting the registration of a domain name that is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of another’s mark.
(iii) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority shall not be liable for damages under this section for the registration or maintenance of a domain name for another absent a showing of bad faith intent to profit from such registration or maintenance of the domain name.
(iv) If a registrar, registry, or other registration authority takes an action described under clause (ii) based on a knowing and material misrepresentation by any other person that a domain name is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of a mark, the person making the knowing and material misrepresentation shall be liable for any damages, including costs and attorney’s fees, incurred by the domain name registrant as a result of such action. The court may also grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant.
(v) A domain name registrant whose domain name has been suspended, disabled, or transferred under a policy described under clause (ii)(II) may, upon notice to the mark owner, file a civil action to establish that the registration or use of the domain name by such registrant is not unlawful under this chapter. The court may grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant.
(E) As used in this paragraph—
(i) the term “violator” means a person who violates section 1125 (a) of this title; and
(ii) the term “violating matter” means matter that is the subject of a violation under section 1125 (a) of this title.
(3)
(A) Any person who engages in the conduct described in paragraph (11) of section 110 of title 17 and who complies with the requirements set forth in that paragraph is not liable on account of such conduct for a violation of any right under this chapter. This subparagraph does not preclude liability, nor shall it be construed to restrict the defenses or limitations on rights granted under this chapter, of a person for conduct not described in paragraph (11) of section 110 of title 17, even if that person also engages in conduct described in paragraph (11) of section 110 of such title.
(B) A manufacturer, licensee, or licensor of technology that enables the making of limited portions of audio or video content of a motion picture imperceptible as described in subparagraph (A) is not liable on account of such manufacture or license for a violation of any right under this chapter, if such manufacturer, licensee, or licensor ensures that the technology provides a clear and conspicuous notice at the beginning of each performance that the performance of the motion picture is altered from the performance intended by the director or copyright holder of the motion picture. The limitations on liability in subparagraph (A) and this subparagraph shall not apply to a manufacturer, licensee, or licensor of technology that fails to comply with this paragraph.
(C) The requirement under subparagraph (B) to provide notice shall apply only with respect to technology manufactured after the end of the 180-day period beginning on April 27, 2005.
(D) Any failure by a manufacturer, licensee, or licensor of technology to qualify for the exemption under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not be construed to create an inference that any such party that engages in conduct described in paragraph (11) of section 110 of title 17 is liable for trademark infringement by reason of such conduct.

Source

(July 5, 1946, ch. 540, title VI, § 32,60 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 87–772, § 17,Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 773; Pub. L. 100–667, title I, § 127,Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3943; Pub. L. 102–542, § 3(a),Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3567; Pub. L. 105–330, title II, § 201(a)(8),Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3070; Pub. L. 106–43, § 4(a),Aug. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 219; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(9) [title III, § 3004], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–549; Pub. L. 109–9, title II, § 202(b),Apr. 27, 2005, 119 Stat. 223.)
Prior Provisions

Acts Feb. 20, 1905, ch. 592, § 16,33 Stat. 728; Mar. 19, 1920, ch. 104, § 4,41 Stat. 534.
Amendments

2005—Par. (3). Pub. L. 109–9added par. (3).
1999—Par. (1). Pub. L. 106–43, in undesignated par., inserted after “includes” in first sentence “the United States, all agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and all individuals, firms, corporations, or other persons acting for the United States and with the authorization and consent of the United States, and” and, in second sentence, substituted “The United States, all agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and all individuals, firms, corporations, other persons acting for the United States and with the authorization and consent of the United States, and any” for “Any”.
Par. (2). Pub. L. 106–113, § 1000(a)(9) [title III, § 3004(1)], in introductory provisions, substituted “under section 1125 (a) or (d) of this title” for “under section 1125 (a) of this title”.
Par. (2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 106–113, § 1000(a)(9) [title III, § 3004(2)], added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E).
1998—Par. (1). Pub. L. 105–330substituted “As used in this paragraph” for “As used in this subsection” in last paragraph.
1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–542inserted at end “As used in this subsection, the term ‘any person’ includes any State, any instrumentality of a State, and any officer or employee of a State or instrumentality of a State acting in his or her official capacity. Any State, and any such instrumentality, officer, or employee, shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter in the same manner and to the same extent as any nongovernmental entity.”
1988—Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–667amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the remedies given to the owner of the right infringed shall be limited as follows: (a) Where an infringer in engaged solely in the business of printing the mark for others and establishes that he was an innocent infringer the owner of the right infringed shall be entitled as against such infringer only to an injunction against future printing; (b) where the infringement complained of is contained in or is part of paid advertising matter in a newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical the remedies of the owner of the right infringed as against the publisher or distributor of such newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical shall be confined to an injunction against the presentation of such advertising matter in future issues of such newspapers, magazines, or other similar periodical: Provided, That these limitations shall apply only to innocent infringers; (c) injunction relief shall not be available to the owner of the right infringed in respect of an issue of a newspaper, magazine, or other similar periodical containing infringing matter when restraining the dissemination of such infringing matter in any particular issue of such periodical would delay the delivery of such issue after the regular time therefor, and such delay would be due to the method by which publication and distribution of such periodical is customarily conducted in accordance with sound business practice, and not to any method or device adopted for the evasion of this section or to prevent or delay the issuance of an injunction or restraining order with respect to such infringing matter.”
1962—Par. (1). Pub. L. 87–772amended provisions generally, and among other changes, inserted “distribution”, and struck out “purchasers as to the source of origin of such goods or services” after “or to deceive” in subsec. (a), inserted provisions regarding the likelihood of such use causing confusion, mistake, or deception, in subsec. (b), and struck out the limitation on recovery under subsec. (b) to acts committed with knowledge that such acts would deceive purchasers.
Par. (2)(b). Pub. L. 87–772substituted “publisher” for “published”.
Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113applicable to all domain names registered before, on, or after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title III, § 3010] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1117 of this title.
Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–330effective Oct. 30, 1998, and applicable only to any civil action filed or proceeding before the United States Patent and Trademark Office commenced on or after such date relating to the registration of a mark, see section 201(b) ofPub. L. 105–330, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.
Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–542, § 4,Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3568, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 1122 of this title and amending this section and sections 1125 and 1127 of this title] shall take effect with respect to violations that occur on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1992].”
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–667effective one year after Nov. 16, 1988, see section 136 ofPub. L. 100–667, set out as a note under section 1051 of this title.
Repeal and Effect on Existing Rights

Repeal of inconsistent provisions, effect of this chapter on pending proceedings and existing registrations and rights under prior acts, see notes set out under section 1051 of this title.

 

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