(1)kidnaps or carries away any other person, with the intent that such other person be sold into involuntary servitude, or held as a slave;
(2)entices, persuades, or induces any other person to go on board any vessel or to any other place with the intent that he or she may be made or held as a slave, or sent out of the country to be so made or held; or
(3)obstructs, or attempts to obstruct, or in any way interferes with or prevents the enforcement of this section,
shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.
(b)Whoever violates this section shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both if—
(1)the violation results in the death of the victim; or
(2)the violation includes kidnaping, an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill.
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 443 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 268,35 Stat. 1141).
Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section
2 of this title.
Minor changes were made in paragraphing of section.
2008—Pub. L. 110–457amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section provided penalties for kidnapping or enticement of a person with intent to sell or hold such person as a slave.
2000—Pub. L. 106–386, in last par., substituted “20 years” for “10 years” and inserted at end “If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.”
1994—Pub. L. 103–322substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208applicable with respect to offenses occurring on or after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 218(d) ofPub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section
1581 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.
Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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