19 U.S. Code § 1862 - Safeguarding national security

(a) Prohibition on decrease or elimination of duties or other import restrictions if such reduction or elimination would threaten to impair national security
No action shall be taken pursuant to section 1821 (a) of this title or pursuant to section 1351 of this title to decrease or eliminate the duty or other import restrictions on any article if the President determines that such reduction or elimination would threaten to impair the national security.
(b) Investigations by Secretary of Commerce to determine effects on national security of imports of articles; consultation with Secretary of Defense and other officials; hearings; assessment of defense requirements; report to President; publication in Federal Register; promulgation of regulations
(1)
(A) Upon request of the head of any department or agency, upon application of an interested party, or upon his own motion, the Secretary of Commerce (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Secretary”) shall immediately initiate an appropriate investigation to determine the effects on the national security of imports of the article which is the subject of such request, application, or motion.
(B) The Secretary shall immediately provide notice to the Secretary of Defense of any investigation initiated under this section.
(2)
(A) In the course of any investigation conducted under this subsection, the Secretary shall—
(i) consult with the Secretary of Defense regarding the methodological and policy questions raised in any investigation initiated under paragraph (1),
(ii) seek information and advice from, and consult with, appropriate officers of the United States, and
(iii) if it is appropriate and after reasonable notice, hold public hearings or otherwise afford interested parties an opportunity to present information and advice relevant to such investigation.
(B) Upon the request of the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense shall provide the Secretary an assessment of the defense requirements of any article that is the subject of an investigation conducted under this section.
(3)
(A) By no later than the date that is 270 days after the date on which an investigation is initiated under paragraph (1) with respect to any article, the Secretary shall submit to the President a report on the findings of such investigation with respect to the effect of the importation of such article in such quantities or under such circumstances upon the national security and, based on such findings, the recommendations of the Secretary for action or inaction under this section. If the Secretary finds that such article is being imported into the United States in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security, the Secretary shall so advise the President in such report.
(B) Any portion of the report submitted by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) which does not contain classified information or proprietary information shall be published in the Federal Register.
(4) The Secretary shall prescribe such procedural regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(c) Adjustment of imports; determination by President; report to Congress; additional actions; publication in Federal Register
(1)
(A) Within 90 days after receiving a report submitted under subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section in which the Secretary finds that an article is being imported into the United States in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security, the President shall—
(i) determine whether the President concurs with the finding of the Secretary, and
(ii) if the President concurs, determine the nature and duration of the action that, in the judgment of the President, must be taken to adjust the imports of the article and its derivatives so that such imports will not threaten to impair the national security.
(B) If the President determines under subparagraph (A) to take action to adjust imports of an article and its derivatives, the President shall implement that action by no later than the date that is 15 days after the day on which the President determines to take action under subparagraph (A).
(2) By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President makes any determinations under paragraph (1), the President shall submit to the Congress a written statement of the reasons why the President has decided to take action, or refused to take action, under paragraph (1). Such statement shall be included in the report published under subsection (e) of this section.
(3)
(A) If—
(i) the action taken by the President under paragraph (1) is the negotiation of an agreement which limits or restricts the importation into, or the exportation to, the United States of the article that threatens to impair national security, and
(ii) either—
(I) no such agreement is entered into before the date that is 180 days after the date on which the President makes the determination under paragraph (1)(A) to take such action, or
(II) such an agreement that has been entered into is not being carried out or is ineffective in eliminating the threat to the national security posed by imports of such article,
the President shall take such other actions as the President deems necessary to adjust the imports of such article so that such imports will not threaten to impair the national security. The President shall publish in the Federal Register notice of any additional actions being taken under this section by reason of this subparagraph.
(B) If—
(i) clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) apply, and
(ii) the President determines not to take any additional actions under this subsection,
the President shall publish in the Federal Register such determination and the reasons on which such determination is based.
(d)  1 Domestic production for national defense; impact of foreign competition on economic welfare of domestic industries
For the purposes of this section, the Secretary and the President shall, in the light of the requirements of national security and without excluding other relevant factors, give consideration to domestic production needed for projected national defense requirements, the capacity of domestic industries to meet such requirements, existing and anticipated availabilities of the human resources, products, raw materials, and other supplies and services essential to the national defense, the requirements of growth of such industries and such supplies and services including the investment, exploration, and development necessary to assure such growth, and the importation of goods in terms of their quantities, availabilities, character, and use as those affect such industries and the capacity of the United States to meet national security requirements. In the administration of this section, the Secretary and the President shall further recognize the close relation of the economic welfare of the Nation to our national security, and shall take into consideration the impact of foreign competition on the economic welfare of individual domestic industries; and any substantial unemployment, decrease in revenues of government, loss of skills or investment, or other serious effects resulting from the displacement of any domestic products by excessive imports shall be considered, without excluding other factors, in determining whether such weakening of our internal economy may impair the national security.
(d)  1 Report by Secretary of Commerce
(1) Upon the disposition of each request, application, or motion under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress, and publish in the Federal Register, a report on such disposition.
(2) Omitted.
(f) Congressional disapproval of Presidential adjustment of imports of petroleum or petroleum products; disapproval resolution
(1) An action taken by the President under subsection (c) of this section to adjust imports of petroleum or petroleum products shall cease to have force and effect upon the enactment of a disapproval resolution, provided for in paragraph (2), relating to that action.
(2)
(A) This paragraph is enacted by the Congress—
(i) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and as such is deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedures to be followed in that House in the case of disapproval resolutions and such procedures supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and
(ii) with the full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner, and to the same extent as any other rule of that House.
(B) For purposes of this subsection, the term “disapproval resolution” means only a joint resolution of either House of Congress the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: “That the Congress disapproves the action taken under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 with respect to petroleum imports under XXXXXX dated XXXXXX.”, the first blank space being filled with the number of the proclamation, Executive order, or other Executive act issued under the authority of subsection (c) of this section for purposes of adjusting imports of petroleum or petroleum products and the second blank being filled with the appropriate date.
(C)
(i) All disapproval resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives shall be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means and all disapproval resolutions introduced in the Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Finance.
(ii) No amendment to a disapproval resolution shall be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate, and no motion to suspend the application of this clause shall be in order in either House nor shall it be in order in either House for the Presiding Officer to entertain a request to suspend the application of this clause by unanimous consent.


[1]  So in original. There are two subsecs. designated (d). Second subsec. (d) probably should be designated (e).

Source

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, § 232,Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, § 127(d),Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1993; Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, § 402,Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 301; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1501(a), (b)(1),Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1257, 1259.)
References in Text

Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is classified to this section.
Codification

Subsection (d)(2), which required the President to submit an annual report to Congress on the operation of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 ofPub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 28 of House Document No. 103–7.
Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(a)(3), in adding subsec. (b) and striking out former subsec. (b) relating to similar subject matter, changed structure of subsec. (b) from a single unnumbered par. to one consisting of pars. (1) to (4).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(b)(1), redesignatedsubsec. (e), as redesignated by section 1501(a)(2) ofPub. L. 100–418, as subsec. (d) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “A report shall be made and published upon the disposition of each request, application, or motion under subsection (b) of this section. The Secretary shall publish procedural regulations to give effect to the authority conferred on him by subsection (b) of this section.”
Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(a)(2), redesignatedsubsec. (c), relating to domestic production for national defense and the impact of foreign competition on economic welfare of domestic industries, as (d). Former subsec. (d), relating to reports on investigations by Secretary of Commerce, redesignated (e).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(b)(1), redesignatedsubsec. (e), as redesignated by section 1501(a)(2) ofPub. L. 100–418, as subsec. (d) and amended it generally.
Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(a)(2), redesignatedsubsec. (d), relating to reports on investigations by Secretary of Commerce, as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1501(a)(1), (2), redesignatedsubsec. (e) as (f), and substituted reference to subsec. (c) of this section for reference to subsec. (b) of this section in pars. (1) and (2)(B).
1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–223added subsec. (e).
1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–618, § 127(d)(1)–(3), substituted “Secretary of the Treasury (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Secretary’)” for “Director of the Office of Emergency Planning (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Director’)”, substituted “advice from, and shall consult with, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce, and other appropriate officers of the United States” for “advice from other appropriate departments and agencies”, inserted provision for public hearings by the Secretary as part of his investigation, inserted requirement that the Secretary report to the President when he recommends inaction in the same way that a report to the President is required when he recommends action under this section, and placed a 1-year time limit on the Secretary’s investigation before making his recommendation to the President.
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 93–618, § 127(d)(4), substituted “Secretary” for “Director”.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1501(d),Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1259, provided that:
“(1) Except as otherwise provided under this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing section 1863 of this title] shall apply with respect to investigations initiated under section 232(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1862 (b)] on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988].
“(2) The provisions of subsection (c) ofsection 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to any report submitted by the Secretary of Commerce to the President under section 232(b) of such Act after the date of enactment of this Act.
“(3) By no later than the date that is 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the President shall make the determinations described in section 232(c)(1)(A) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended by this section, with respect to any report—
“(A) which was submitted by the Secretary of Commerce to the President under section 232(b) of such Act before the date of enactment of this Act, and
“(B) with respect to which no action has been taken by the President before the date of enactment of this Act.”
Petroleum Import Adjustment Program; Oil Import Fee of April 2, 1980; Cessation of Force and Effect of Presidential Action

Pub. L. 96–264, § 2,June 6, 1980, 94 Stat. 439, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the action taken by the President under section 232(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862 (b)) with respect to petroleum imports under Proclamation 4744, dated April 2, 1980, as amended [formerly set out below], shall cease to have force and effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act [June 6, 1980].”
Proclamation No. 3279

Proc. No. 3279, Mar. 10, 1959, 24 F.R. 1781, as amended by Proc. No. 3290, Apr. 30, 1959, 24 F.R. 3527; Proc. No. 3328, Dec. 10, 1959, 24 F.R. 10133; Proc. No. 3386, Dec. 24, 1960, 25 F.R. 13945; Proc. No. 3389, Jan. 17, 1961, 26 F.R. 507; Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683; Proc. No. 3509, Nov. 30, 1962, 27 F.R. 11985; Proc. No. 3531, Apr. 19, 1963, 28 F.R. 4077; Proc. No. 3541, June 12, 1963, 28 F.R. 5931; Proc. No. 3693, Dec. 10, 1965, 30 F.R. 15459; Proc. No. 3779, Apr. 10, 1967, 32 F.R. 5919; Proc. No. 3794, July 17, 1967, 32 F.R. 10547; Proc. No. 3820, Nov. 9, 1967, 32 F.R. 15701; Proc. No. 3823, Jan. 29, 1968, 33 F.R. 1171; Proc. No. 3969, Mar. 10, 1970, 35 F.R. 4321; Proc. No. 3990, June 17, 1970, 35 F.R. 10091; Proc. No. 4018, Oct. 16, 1970, 35 F.R. 16357; Proc. No. 4025, Dec. 22, 1970, 35 F.R. 19391; Proc. No. 4092, Nov. 5, 1971, 36 F.R. 21397; Proc. No. 4099, Dec. 20, 1971, 36 F.R. 24203; Proc. No. 4133, May 11, 1972, 37 F.R. 9543; Proc. No. 4156, Sept. 18, 1972, 37 F.R. 19115; Proc. No. 4175, Dec. 16, 1972, 37 F.R. 28043; Proc. No. 4178, Jan. 17, 1973, 38 F.R. 1719; Ex. Ord. No. 11703, Feb. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 3579; Proc. No. 4202, Mar. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 7977; Proc. No. 4210, Apr. 18, 1973, 38 F.R. 9645; Proc. No. 4227, June 19, 1973, 38 F.R. 16195; Ex. Ord. No. 11743, Oct. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 29459; Ex. Ord. No. 11775, Mar. 26, 1974, 39 F.R. 11415; Ex. Ord. No. 11790, June 25, 1974, 39 F.R. 23185; Proc. No. 4317, Sept. 27, 1974, 39 F.R. 35103; Proc. No. 4341, Jan. 23, 1975, 40 F.R. 3965; Proc. No. 4355, Mar. 4, 1975, 40 F.R. 10437; Proc. No. 4370, Apr. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 19421; Proc. No. 4377, May 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 23429; Proc. No. 4412, Jan. 3, 1976, 41 F.R. 1037; Proc. No. 4543, Dec. 27, 1977, 42 F.R. 64849; Ex. Ord. No. 12038, Feb. 3, 1978, 43 F.R. 4947; Proc. No. 4629, Dec. 8, 1978, 43 F.R. 58077; Proc. No. 4655, Apr. 6, 1979, 44 F.R. 21243; Proc. No. 4702, Nov. 12, 1979, 44 F.R. 65581; Proc. No. 4744, Apr. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 22864; Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899; Proc. No. 4907, Mar. 10, 1982, 47 F.R. 10507, which set forth regulations governing the licensing of imports of petroleum and petroleum products, was revoked by Proc. No. 5141, Dec. 22, 1983, 48 F.R. 56929, set out below.
Proclamation No. 4744

Proc. No. 4744, Apr. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 22864, as amended by Proc. No. 4748, Apr. 11, 1980, 45 F.R. 25371; Proc. No. 4751, Apr. 23, 1980, 45 F.R. 27905, which related to the petroleum import adjustment program, was rescinded by Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899, effective Mar. 15, 1980.
Proclamation No. 4762

Proc. No. 4762, June 6, 1980, 45 F.R. 39237, relating to petroleum import licensing requirements, was revoked by Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899.
Proc. No. 5141. Imports of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

Proc. No. 5141, Dec. 22, 1983, 48 F.R. 56929, provided:
The Secretary of Energy has advised me that no purpose is currently served by the existing system of licensing of imports of petroleum and petroleum products. The Secretary of Energy also recommends that I retain the current prohibition on imports of Libyan crude oil into the United States, its territories and possessions, which was adopted in Proclamation No. 4907 [amending Proc. No. 3279, formerly set out above], on the ground that such imports would be inimical to the United States national security. The Secretary further recommends that he continue to monitor imports of petroleum and petroleum products in order to be able to advise me as to the need for further action, as appropriate, under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [this section].
I agree with the recommendations of the Secretary of Energy.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, RONALD REAGAN, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1862), do hereby proclaim that:
Section 1. Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, is revoked.
Sec. 2. The Secretary of Energy shall continue to monitor imports of petroleum and petroleum products and shall, from time to time, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, and such other federal agencies as he deems appropriate, review the status of such imports with respect to the national security. The Secretary shall inform the President of any circumstances which in his opinion might indicate the need for further action by the President under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act [this section].
Sec. 3. (a) No crude oil produced in Libya may be imported into the United States, its territories or possessions.
(b) The Secretary of the Treasury may issue such regulations and interpretations as he deems necessary to implement this section.
Sec. 4. The Secretary of Energy may continue to consider requests for refund of fees paid under Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, if such requests were filed with the Secretary prior to the effective date of this Proclamation [Dec. 22, 1983]. Any such requests shall be considered in accordance with the previously applicable provisions of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, and implementing regulations thereunder.
Sec. 5. The revocation of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, shall not affect the authority of any federal department or agency to institute and conduct any administrative, civil or criminal audit, investigation or proceeding based on any act committed or liability incurred while that Proclamation was in effect.
Sec. 6. The revocation of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, shall not affect the presently applicable tariff rates for imports of petroleum and petroleum products, as reflected in the Tariff Schedules of the United States, Schedule 4, part 10.
Sec. 7. This Proclamation shall be effective immediately.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 22nd day of December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and eighth.
Ronald Reagan.
[The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.]
Ex. Ord. No. 11703. Assigning Policy Development and Directing Functions Respecting Oil Import Control Program

Ex. Ord. No. 11703, Feb. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 3579, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The Oil Policy Committee, as reconstituted by this order, is hereby continued.
Sec. 2. The Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee shall provide policy direction, coordination, and surveillance of the oil import control program established by Proclamation No. 3279 of March 10, 1959, as amended [set out below], including approval of regulations hereafter issued pursuant to such proclamation. He shall perform those functions after receiving the advice of the Oil Policy Committee and in accordance with guidance from the Assistant to the President with responsibility in the area of economic affairs.
Sec. 3. The Oil Policy Committee shall henceforth consist of the United States Trade Representative, chair, and the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, the Interior, Commerce and Energy, the Attorney General, and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, as members. The President may, from time to time, designate other officials to serve as members of the Committee. The Chairman may create subcommittees of the Committee to study and report to the Committee concerning specified subject matters.
Sec. 4. The Oil Policy Committee shall consult with and advise the Chairman on oil import policy, including the operation of the control program under Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, and on recommendations for changes in the program by the issuance of new proclamations with respect to it, or otherwise.
Sec. 5. Section 6 of Proclamation No. 3279 of March 10, 1959, as amended, is amended to read as follows:
“Sec. 6. The Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee shall maintain a constant surveillance of imports of petroleum and its primary derivatives in respect to the national security and, after consultation with the Oil Policy Committee, he shall inform the President of any circumstances which, in the Chairman’s opinion might indicate the need for further Presidential action under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862), as amended. In the event prices of crude oil or its products or derivatives should be increased after the effective date of this proclamation, such surveillance shall include a determination as to whether such increase or increases are necessary to accomplish the national security objectives of section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended, and of this proclamation.”
Sec. 6. So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred by sections 2 and 5 of this order from the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness to the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, as Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, in conformity with section 202(b) of the Budget and Accounting Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c(b)), shall be transferred at such time or times as he shall direct for use in connection with the functions transferred.
Executive Order No. 11743

Ex. Ord. No. 11743, Oct. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 29459, formerly set out as a note under this section, which related to the continuation of the Oil Policy Committee, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11775, Mar. 26, 1974, 39 F.R. 11415.
Executive Order No. 12538

Ex. Ord. No. 12538, Nov. 15, 1985, 50 F.R. 47527, which related to imports of refined petroleum products from Libya, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13357, Sept. 20, 2004, 69 F.R. 56665, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

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