20 U.S. Code § 1681 - Sex
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(a) Prohibition against discrimination; exceptions
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, except that:
(1) Classes of educational institutions subject to prohibition
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education;
(2) Educational institutions commencing planned change in admissions
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall not apply
(A) for one year from June 23, 1972, nor for six years after June 23, 1972, in the case of an educational institution which has begun the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education or
(B) for seven years from the date an educational institution begins the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of only one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education, whichever is the later;
(3) Educational institutions of religious organizations with contrary religious tenets
this section shall not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of this subsection would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization;
(4) Educational institutions training individuals for military services or merchant marine
this section shall not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for the military services of the United States, or the merchant marine;
(5) Public educational institutions with traditional and continuing admissions policy
in regard to admissions this section shall not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher education which is an institution that traditionally and continually from its establishment has had a policy of admitting only students of one sex;
(6) Social fraternities or sororities; voluntary youth service organizations
this section shall not apply to membership practices—
(A) of a social fraternity or social sorority which is exempt from taxation under section 501 (a) of title 26, the active membership of which consists primarily of students in attendance at an institution of higher education, or
(B) of the Young Men’s Christian Association, Young Women’s Christian Association, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and voluntary youth service organizations which are so exempt, the membership of which has traditionally been limited to persons of one sex and principally to persons of less than nineteen years of age;
(7) Boy or Girl conferences
this section shall not apply to—
(A) any program or activity of the American Legion undertaken in connection with the organization or operation of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or
(8) Father-son or mother-daughter activities at educational institutions
this section shall not preclude father-son or mother-daughter activities at an educational institution, but if such activities are provided for students of one sex, opportunities for reasonably comparable activities shall be provided for students of the other sex; and
(9) Institution of higher education scholarship awards in “beauty” pageants
this section shall not apply with respect to any scholarship or other financial assistance awarded by an institution of higher education to any individual because such individual has received such award in any pageant in which the attainment of such award is based upon a combination of factors related to the personal appearance, poise, and talent of such individual and in which participation is limited to individuals of one sex only, so long as such pageant is in compliance with other nondiscrimination provisions of Federal law.
(b) Preferential or disparate treatment because of imbalance in participation or receipt of Federal benefits; statistical evidence of imbalance
Nothing contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be interpreted to require any educational institution to grant preferential or disparate treatment to the members of one sex on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of that sex participating in or receiving the benefits of any federally supported program or activity, in comparison with the total number or percentage of persons of that sex in any community, State, section, or other area: Provided, That this subsection shall not be construed to prevent the consideration in any hearing or proceeding under this chapter of statistical evidence tending to show that such an imbalance exists with respect to the participation in, or receipt of the benefits of, any such program or activity by the members of one sex.
(c) “Educational institution” defined
For purposes of this chapter an educational institution means any public or private preschool, elementary, or secondary school, or any institution of vocational, professional, or higher education, except that in the case of an educational institution composed of more than one school, college, or department which are administratively separate units, such term means each such school, college, or department.
Source(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 901,June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 93–568, § 3(a),Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1862; Pub. L. 94–482, title IV, § 412(a),Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2234; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, § 301(a)(1), title V, § 507,Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692; Pub. L. 99–514, § 2,Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)
References in Text
This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original “this title”, meaning title IX of Pub. L. 92–318which enacted this chapter and amended sections 203 and 213 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 2000c, 2000c–6, 2000c–9, and 2000h–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.
1986—Subsec. (a)(6)(A). Pub. L. 99–514substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.
1976—Subsec. (a)(6) to (9). Pub. L. 94–482substituted “this” for “This” in par. (6) and added pars. (7) to (9).
1974—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 93–568added par. (6).
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment
Pub. L. 94–482, title IV, § 412(b),Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2234, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1976].”
Effective Date of 1974 Amendment
Pub. L. 93–568, § 3(b),Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1862, provided that: “The provisions of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective on, and retroactive to, July 1, 1972.”
Short Title of 1988 Amendment
Pub. L. 100–259, § 1,Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 28, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1687 and 1688 of this title and section 2000d–4a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 706 and 794 of Title 29, Labor, and section 6107 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1687 and 1688 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987’.”
Pub. L. 107–255, Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1734, provided “That title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.; Public Law 92–318) [title IX of Pub. L. 92–318, enacting this chapter and amending sections 203 and 213 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 2000c, 2000c–6, 2000c–9, and 2000h–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act’.”
Transfer of Functions
“Secretary” substituted for “Commissioner” in subsec. (a)(2) pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 ofPub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441 (a)(1) and 3507 of this title and which transferred functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education.
Coordination of Implementation and Enforcement of Provisions
For provisions relating to the coordination of implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this chapter by the Attorney General, see section 1–201(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72995, set out under section 2000d–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
Regulations; Nature of Particular Sports: Intercollegiate Athletic Activities
Pub. L. 93–380, title VIII, § 844,Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 612, directed Secretary to prepare and publish, not more than 30 days after Aug. 21, 1974, proposed regulations implementing the provisions of this chapter regarding prohibition of sex discrimination in federally assisted programs, including reasonable regulations for intercollegiate athletic activities considering the nature of the particular sports.