22 U.S. Code § 1431 - Congressional declaration of objectives
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The Congress declares that the objectives of this chapter are to enable the Government of the United States to promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries, and to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries. Among the means to be used in achieving these objectives are—
(1) an information service to disseminate abroad information about the United States, its people, and policies promulgated by the Congress, the President, the Secretary of State and other responsible officials of Government having to do with matters affecting foreign affairs;
Source(Jan. 27, 1948, ch. 36, title I, § 2,62 Stat. 6; Pub. L. 87–256, § 111(a)(2),Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 538.)
1961—Pub. L. 87–256repealed par. (2) which authorized an educational exchange service to cooperate with other nations in the interchange of persons, knowledge, and skills, in the rendering of technical and other services, and in the interchange of developments in the field of education, the arts, and sciences. See section 2451 et seq. of this title.
Termination of Chapter
Act Jan. 27, 1948, ch. 36, title X, § 1006,62 Stat. 14, provided that: “The authority granted under this Act [this chapter] shall terminate whenever such termination is directed by concurrent resolution of the two Houses of the Congress.”
Short Title of 1983 Amendment
For short title of Pub. L. 98–111, which enacted subchapter V–A of this chapter, as the “Radio Broadcasting to Cuba Act”, see section 1 ofPub. L. 98–111, set out as a Short Title note under section 1465 of this title.
Short Title of 1973 Amendment
Pub. L. 93–168, § 1,Nov. 29, 1973, 87 Stat. 688, provided: “That this Act [amending former section 1476 of this title] may be cited as the ‘United States Information Agency Appropriations Authorization Act of 1973’.”
Act Jan. 27, 1948, ch. 36, title I, § 1,62 Stat. 6, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948’.”
Act Jan. 27, 1948, ch. 36, title X, § 1010,62 Stat. 14, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [enacting this chapter] or the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance shall be held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act [this chapter] and the applicability of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”
Transfer of Functions
All functions vested in the President, the Secretary of State, the Department of State, the United States Information Agency, or the Director thereof, under this chapter, were transferred to the Director of the International Communication Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, § 7(a)(1),42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by the President, except to the extent that such functions were vested in the President under sections 1452, 1456, and 1467 of this title. The International Communication Agency, and the Director thereof, were redesignated the United States Information Agency, and the Director thereof, by section 303 ofPub. L. 97–241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of this title. United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and 6532 of this title.
Promotion of Free Media and Other American Values
“(a) Promotion of United States Values Through Broadcast Media.—
“(1) Findings.—Consistent with the report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Congress makes the following findings:
“(A) Although the United States has demonstrated and promoted its values in defending Muslims against tyrants and criminals in Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, this message is neither convincingly presented nor widely understood.
“(B) If the United States does not act to vigorously define its message in countries with predominantly Muslim populations, the image of the United States will be defined by Islamic extremists who seek to demonize the United States.
“(C) Recognizing that many Muslim audiences rely on satellite television and radio, the United States Government has launched promising initiatives in television and radio broadcasting to the Islamic world, including Iran and Afghanistan.
“(2) Sense of congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—
“(A) the United States must do more to defend and promote its values and ideals to the broadest possible audience in countries with predominantly Muslim populations;
“(B) United States efforts to defend and promote these values and ideals are beginning to ensure that accurate expressions of these values reach large Muslim audiences and should be robustly supported;
“(C) the United States Government could and should do more to engage Muslim audiences in the struggle of ideas; and
“(D) the United States Government should more intensively employ existing broadcast media in the Islamic world as part of this engagement.
“(b) Enhancing Free and Independent Media.—
“(1) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:
“(A) Freedom of speech and freedom of the press are fundamental human rights.
“(B) The United States has a national interest in promoting these freedoms by supporting free media abroad, which is essential to the development of free and democratic societies consistent with our own.
“(C) Free media is undermined, endangered, or nonexistent in many repressive and transitional societies around the world, including in Eurasia, Africa, and the Middle East.
“(D) Individuals lacking access to a plurality of free media are vulnerable to misinformation and propaganda and are potentially more likely to adopt anti-United States views.
“(E) Foreign governments have a responsibility to actively and publicly discourage and rebut unprofessional and unethical media while respecting journalistic integrity and editorial independence.
“(2) Statement of policy.—It shall be the policy of the United States, acting through the Secretary of State, to—
“(A) ensure that the promotion of freedom of the press and freedom of media worldwide is a priority of United States foreign policy and an integral component of United States public diplomacy;
“(B) respect the journalistic integrity and editorial independence of free media worldwide; and
“(C) ensure that widely accepted standards for professional and ethical journalistic and editorial practices are employed when assessing international media.
“(c) Establishment of Media Network.—
“(1) Grants for establishment of network.—The Secretary of State shall, utilizing amounts authorized to be appropriated by subsection (e)(2) [(d)(2)], make grants to the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) under the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411 et seq.) for utilization by the Endowment to provide funding to a private sector group to establish and manage a free and independent media network as specified in paragraph (2).
“(2) Media network.—The media network established using funds under paragraph (1) shall provide an effective forum to convene a broad range of individuals, organizations, and governmental participants involved in journalistic activities and the development of free and independent media in order to—
“(A) fund a clearinghouse to collect and share information concerning international media development and training;
“(B) improve research in the field of media assistance and program evaluation to better inform decisions regarding funding and program design for government and private donors;
“(C) explore the most appropriate use of existing means to more effectively encourage the involvement of the private sector in the field of media assistance; and
“(D) identify effective methods for the development of a free and independent media in societies in transition.
“(d) Authorizations of Appropriations.—
“(1) In general.—There are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, unless otherwise authorized by Congress, such sums as may be necessary to carry out United States Government broadcasting activities consistent with this section under the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (22 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.), the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (22 U.S.C. 6201 et seq.), and the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.), and to carry out other activities under this section consistent with the purposes of such Acts, unless otherwise authorized by Congress.
“(2) Grants for media network.—In addition to the amounts authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1), there are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, unless otherwise authorized by Congress, such sums as may be necessary for grants under subsection (c)(1) for the establishment of the media network described in subsection (c)(2).”
Continuation of Certain Executive Orders, Agreements, Determinations, Regulations, Contracts, Appointments, and Other Actions
Continuation in full force and effect, and applicability to the appropriate provisions of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, set out as section 2451 et seq. of this title, until modified or superseded by appropriate authority, of all Executive orders, agreements, determinations, regulations, contracts, appointments, and other actions issued, concluded, or taken under authority of this section, see section 111(b) ofPub. L. 87–256, set out as a note under section 2451 of this title.
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