22 U.S. Code § 2452 - Authorization of activities

(a) Grants or contracts for educational or cultural exchanges; participation in international fairs and expositions abroad
The Director of the United States Information Agency is authorized, when he considers that it would strengthen international cooperative relations, to provide, by grant, contract, or otherwise, for—
(1) educational exchanges, (i) by financing studies, research, instruction, and other educational activities—
(A) of or for American citizens and nationals in foreign countries, and
(B) of or for citizens and nationals of foreign countries in American schools and institutions of learning located in or outside the United States;
and (ii) by financing visits and interchanges between the United States and other countries of students, trainees, teachers, instructors, and professors;
(2) cultural exchanges, by financing—
(i) visits and interchanges between the United States and other countries of leaders, experts in fields of specialized knowledge or skill, and other influential or distinguished persons;
(ii) tours in countries abroad by creative and performing artists and athletes from the United States, individually and in groups, representing any field of the arts, sports, or any other form of cultural attainment;
(iii) United States representation in international artistic, dramatic, musical, sports, and other cultural festivals, competitions, meetings, and like exhibitions and assemblies;
(iv) participation by groups and individuals from other countries in nonprofit activities in the United States similar to those described in subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, when the Director of the United States Information Agency determines that such participation is in the national interest. [1]
(3) United States participation in international fairs and expositions abroad, including trade and industrial fairs and other public or private demonstrations of United States economic accomplishments and cultural attainments.
(b) Other exchanges
In furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the President is further authorized to provide for—
(1) interchanges between the United States and other countries of handicrafts, scientific, technical, and scholarly books, books of literature, periodicals, and Government publications, and the reproduction and translation of such writings, and the preparation, distribution, and interchange of other educational and research materials, including laboratory and technical equipment for education and research;
(2) establishing and operating in the United States and abroad centers for cultural and technical interchanges to promote better relations and understanding between the United States and other nations through cooperative study, training, and research;
(3) assistance in the establishment, expansion, maintenance, and operation of schools and institutions of learning abroad, founded, operated, or sponsored by citizens or nonprofit institutions of the United States, including such schools and institutions serving as demonstration centers for methods and practices employed in the United States;
(4) fostering and supporting American studies in foreign countries through professorships, lectureships, institutes, seminars, and courses in such subjects as American history, government, economics, language and literature, and other subjects related to American civilization and culture, including financing the attendance at such studies by persons from other countries;
(5) promoting and supporting medical, scientific, cultural, and educational research and development;
(6) promoting modern foreign language training and area studies in United States schools, colleges, and universities by supporting visits and study in foreign countries by teachers and prospective teachers in such schools, colleges, and universities for the purpose of improving their skill in languages and their knowledge of the culture of the people of those countries, and by financing visits by teachers from those countries to the United States for the purpose of participating in foreign language training and area studies in United States schools, colleges, and universities;
(7) United States representation at international nongovernmental educational, scientific, and technical meetings;
(8) participation by groups and individuals from other countries in educational, scientific, and technical meetings held under American auspices in or outside the United States;
(9) encouraging independent research into the problems of educational and cultural exchange;
(10) promoting studies, research, instruction, and other educational activities of citizens and nationals of foreign countries in American schools, colleges, and universities located in the United States by making available to citizens and nationals of less developed friendly foreign countries for exchange for currencies of their respective countries (other than excess foreign currencies), at United States embassies, United States dollars in such amounts as may be necessary to enable such foreign citizens or nationals who are coming temporarily to the United States as students, trainees, teachers, instructors, or professors to meet expenses of the kind described in section 2454 (e)(1) of this title;
(11) interchanges and visits between the United States and other countries of scientists, scholars, leaders, and other experts in the fields of environmental science and environmental management; and
(12) promoting respect for and guarantees of religious freedom abroad by interchanges and visits between the United States and other nations of religious leaders, scholars, and religious and legal experts in the field of religious freedom.


[1]  So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

Source

(Pub. L. 87–256, § 102,Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. IV, § 403,Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 89–698, title II, § 203(a),Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 1071; 1977 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 7(a)(2),42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637; Pub. L. 97–241, title III, § 303(b),Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291; Pub. L. 98–164, title VII, § 703(a),Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1045; Pub. L. 105–292, title V, § 503,Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2811.)
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and Tables.
Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 105–292added par. (12).
1983—Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 98–164added par. (11).
1966—Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 89–698added par. (10).
1962—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 87–565inserted “abroad” after “expositions”.
Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–565, pt. IV, § 403,Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263, provided in part that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall not be applicable with respect to any fair or exposition within the United States for which an appropriation has been provided.”
Transfer of Functions

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and 6532 of this title. “Director of the United States Information Agency” substituted for “Director of the International Communication Agency” in subsec. (a), opening par. and par. (2)(iv), pursuant to section 303(b) ofPub. L. 97–241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of this title. Previously, “Director of the International Communication Agency” substituted for “President” in subsec. (a), opening par. and par. (2)(iv), pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, § 7(a)(2),42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by President, which transferred functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of State, United States Information Agency, or Director thereof, under this chapter, to Director of International Communication Agency, except (A) for such functions as are vested by subsec. (b)(6), (10) of this section, and sections 2454 (a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455 (a), (b), (c), 2456 (a) and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are vested by sections 2454 (b), 2455 (d)(2), (f), and 2456 (d), (f) of this title, to the extent that such functions were assigned to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education] immediately prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested by section 2456 (b), (c) of this title to the extent that any such function therein is vested in President or Secretary of State.
Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of State, Director of United States Information Agency, Secretary of Commerce, and Secretary of Education, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, as amended, set out as a note under section 2454 of this title.
Performance of Functions

Authorization of performance of functions under subsec. (a)(2) and (3) of this section by departments or other executive agencies, see Ex. Ord. No. 11380, § 2, Nov. 8, 1967, 32 F.R. 15627, set out as a note under section 2454 of this title.
Pilot Program To Provide Grants to American-Sponsored Schools in Predominantly Muslim Countries To Provide Scholarships

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7113,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3797, as amended, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred and is classified to section 2452c of this title.
Conduct of Certain Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs

Pub. L. 104–319, title I, § 102,Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3865, as amended by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title IV, § 402], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–445, provided that:
“(a) In General.—In carrying out programs of educational and cultural exchange in countries whose people do not fully enjoy freedom and democracy, the Secretary of State, with the assistance of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy, shall provide, where appropriate, opportunities for significant participation in such programs to nationals of such countries who are—
“(1) human rights or democracy leaders of such countries; or
“(2) committed to advancing human rights and democratic values in such countries.
“(b) Grantee Organizations.—To the extent practicable, grantee organizations selected to operate programs described in subsection (a) shall be selected through an open competitive process. Among the factors that should be considered in the selection of such a grantee are the willingness and ability of the organization to—
“(1) recruit a broad range of participants, including those described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a); and
“(2) ensure that the governments of the countries described in subsection (a) do not have inappropriate influence in the selection process.”
Limitation on Participation in International Expositions or Fairs

Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 230,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 424, which provided that United States Information Agency could not obligate or expend funds for a United States Government funded pavilion or major exhibit at any international exposition or world’s fair in excess of amounts expressly authorized and appropriated for such purpose, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, § 204(e)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–421. See section 2452b of this title.
International Exchange, Scholarship, and Training Programs

Pub. L. 110–83, Sept. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 781, authorized establishment of a United States-Poland parliamentary youth exchange program.
Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(4) [div. B, title II], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–254, as amended by Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title II, § 227,Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1369, known as the Vietnam Education Foundation Act of 2000, established the Vietnam Education Foundation to provide fellowships to Vietnamese nationals to study the sciences, mathematics, medicine, and technology in the United States and to United States citizens to teach those subjects in Vietnam.
Pub. L. 104–319, title I, § 103,Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3865, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXIV, § 2415,Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–834; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title IV, § 401], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–445; Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title II, § 222,Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1367, authorized establishment of educational and cultural exchange programs between United States and people of Tibet and authorized scholarships for Tibetans and Burmese.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 235,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 425, authorized establishment and maintenance of American studies collections at appropriate foreign university libraries to further the study of the United States.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 236,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 425, authorized establishment of educational and cultural exchange programs between United States and Tibet.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 237,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 426, established a scholarship program for East Timorese students qualified to study in United States.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 238,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 426, related to establishment and expansion of Cambodian scholarship and exchange programs.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 239,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 426, related to expansion of exchange program allocations to Africa.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 240,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 426, as amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(7)(A),Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1619, established a program to promote academic exchanges in disciplines relevant to environment and sustainable development.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 241,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 427, authorized scholarships to qualified students from South Pacific nations.
Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 242,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 427, provided for international exchange programs involving disability related matters.
Pub. L. 102–511, title VIII, § 807,Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3353, authorized exchange and training programs between United States and independent states of former Soviet Union.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 210,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 694, authorized grants to Claude and Mildred Pepper Scholarship Program of the Washington Workshops Foundation to enable foreign visiting students to observe workings and operations of democratic form of government of United States.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 214,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 696, established Israeli Arab Scholarship Fund within United States Information Agency to finance attendance of Israeli Arabs at United States institutions of higher education.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 225,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 699, authorized establishment of an endowment fund to support an exchange program among secondary school students from United States and former Warsaw Pact countries, prior to repeal, eff. 6 months after Oct. 24, 1992, by Pub. L. 102–511, title VIII, § 807(c),Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3354.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 226,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 699, authorized scholarships for foreign and United States students and scholars awarded by Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of United States Information Agency to facilitate study, research, and teaching within United States.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 227,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 700, as amended by Pub. L. 102–511, title VIII, § 801,Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3352; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXIV, § 2413,Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–832, established Muskie Fellowship Program to award scholarships to graduate students from independent states of the former Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia for study within United States.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 228,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 702, as amended by Pub. L. 103–236, title II, § 233,Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 424; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXII, § 2219(a)(7),Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–817, authorized assistance to United States graduate and postdoctoral students researching Near and Middle East.
Pub. L. 102–138, title II, § 229,Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 702, authorized scholarships for Vietnamese residents qualified to study in United States.
Study and Report on Ways To Reduce the Drain From Developing Countries of Professional Persons and Skilled Specialists

Pub. L. 89–698, title III, § 301,Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 1072, authorized Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct an investigation to determine number of individuals from developing countries who enter United States annually to further their education and fail to return to their homeland and to report to President and to Congress findings and conclusions together with recommendations for any legislation deemed necessary to encourage these individuals to return and use their education and training in service of their homeland.
Executive Order No. 10716

Ex. Ord. No. 10716, June 18, 1957, 22 F.R. 4345, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10912, Jan. 19, 1961, 26 F.R. 509, which related to administration of programs under this chapter, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, set out as a note under section 2454 of this title.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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22 CFR - Foreign Relations

22 CFR Part 62 - EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM

22 CFR Part 64 - PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES

45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 50 - U.S. EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM—REQUEST FOR WAIVER OF THE TWO-YEAR FOREIGN RESIDENCE REQUIREMENT

234 CFR - Title 234

 

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