26 U.S. Code § 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

(a) Reserve for bad debts
(1) In general
Except as provided in subsection (c), a bank shall be allowed a deduction for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. Such deduction shall be in lieu of any deduction under section 166 (a).
(2) Bank
For purposes of this section—
(A) In general
The term “bank” means any bank (as defined in section 581).
(B) Banking business of United States branch of foreign corporation
The term “bank” also includes any corporation to which subparagraph (A) would apply except for the fact that it is a foreign corporation. In the case of any such foreign corporation, this section shall apply only with respect to loans outstanding the interest on which is effectively connected with the conduct of a banking business within the United States.
(b) Addition to reserves for bad debts
(1) General rule
For purposes of subsection (a), the reasonable addition to the reserve for bad debts of any financial institution to which this section applies shall be an amount determined by the taxpayer which shall not exceed the addition to the reserve for losses on loans determined under the experience method as provided in paragraph (2).
(2) Experience method
The amount determined under this paragraph for a taxable year shall be the amount necessary to increase the balance of the reserve for losses on loans (at the close of the taxable year) to the greater of—
(A) the amount which bears the same ratio to loans outstanding at the close of the taxable year as
(i) the total bad debts sustained during the taxable year and the 5 preceding taxable years (or, with the approval of the Secretary, a shorter period), adjusted for recoveries of bad debts during such period, bears to
(ii) the sum of the loans outstanding at the close of such 6 or fewer taxable years, or
(B) the lower of—
(i) the balance of the reserve at the close of the base year, or
(ii) if the amount of loans outstanding at the close of the taxable year is less than the amount of loans outstanding at the close of the base year, the amount which bears the same ratio to loans outstanding at the close of the taxable year as the balance of the reserve at the close of the base year bears to the amount of loans outstanding at the close of the base year.
For purposes of this paragraph, the base year shall be the last taxable year before the most recent adoption of the experience method, except that for taxable years beginning after 1987 the base year shall be the last taxable year beginning before 1988.
(3) Regulations; definition of loan
The Secretary shall define the term loan and prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.
(c) Section not to apply to large banks
(1) In general
In the case of a large bank, this section shall not apply (and no deduction shall be allowed under any other provision of this subtitle for any addition to a reserve for bad debts).
(2) Large banks
For purposes of this subsection, a bank is a large bank if, for the taxable year (or for any preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986)—
(A) the average adjusted bases of all assets of such bank exceeded $500,000,000, or
(B) such bank was a member of a parent-subsidiary controlled group and the average adjusted bases of all assets of such group exceeded $500,000,000.
(3) 4-year spread of adjustments
(A) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (4), in the case of any bank which for its last taxable year before the disqualification year maintained a reserve for bad debts—
(i) the provisions of this subsection shall be treated as a change in the method of accounting of such bank for the disqualification year,
(ii) such change shall be treated as having been made with the consent of the Secretary, and
(iii) the net amount of adjustments required by section 481 (a) to be taken into account by the taxpayer shall be taken into account in each of the 4 taxable years beginning with the disqualification year with—
(I) the amount taken into account for the 1st of such taxable years being the greater of 10 percent of such net amount or such higher percentage of such net amount as the taxpayer may elect, and
(II) the amount taken into account in each of the 3 succeeding taxable years being equal to the applicable fraction (determined in accordance with the following table for the taxable year involved) of the portion of such net amount not taken into account under subclause (I).

 
The applicable
If the case of the— fraction is—
1st succeeding year 2/9  
2nd succeeding year 1/3  
3rd succeeding year 4/9.

(B) Suspension of recapture for taxable year for which bank is financially troubled
(i) In general In the case of a bank which is a financially troubled bank for any taxable year—
(I) no adjustment shall be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for such taxable year, and
(II) such taxable year shall be disregarded in determining whether any other taxable year is a taxable year for which an adjustment is required to be taken into account under subparagraph (A) or the amount of such adjustment.
(ii) Exception for elective recapture for 1st year Clause (i) shall not apply to the 1st taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii)(I) if the taxpayer elects a higher percentage in accordance with such subparagraph.
(iii) Financially troubled bank For purposes of clause (i), the term “financially troubled bank” means any bank if, for the taxable year, the nonperforming loan percentage of such bank exceeds 75 percent.
(iv) Nonperforming loan percentage For purposes of clause (iii), the term “nonperforming loan percentage” means the percentage determined by dividing—
(I) the sum of the outstanding balances of nonperforming loans of the bank as of the close of each quarter of the taxable year, by
(II) the sum of the amounts of equity of the bank as of the close of each such quarter.
 In the case of a bank which is a member of a parent-subsidiary controlled group for the taxable year, the preceding sentence shall be applied with respect to such group.
(v) Other definitions For purposes of this subparagraph—
(I) Nonperforming loans The term “nonperforming loan” means any loan which is considered to be nonperforming by the primary Federal regulatory agency with respect to the bank.
(II) Equity The term “equity” means the equity of the bank as determined for Federal regulatory purposes.
(C) Coordination with estimated tax payments
For purposes of applying section 6655 (e)(2)(A)(i) with respect to any installment, the determination under subparagraph (B) of whether an adjustment is required to be taken into account under subparagraph (A) shall be made as of the last day prescribed for payment of such installment.
(4) Elective cut-off method
If a bank makes an election under this paragraph for the disqualification year—
(A) the provisions of this subsection shall not be treated as a change in the method of accounting of the taxpayer for purposes of section 481,
(B) the taxpayer shall continue to maintain its reserve for loans held by the bank as of the 1st day of the disqualification year and charge against such reserve any losses resulting from loans held by the bank as of such 1st day, and
(C) no deduction shall be allowed under this section (or any other provision of this subtitle) for any addition to such reserve for the disqualification year or any subsequent taxable year.
If the amount of the reserve referred to in subparagraph (B) as of the close of any taxable year exceeds the outstanding balance (as of such time) of the loans referred to in subparagraph (B), such excess shall be included in gross income for such taxable year.
(5) Definitions
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) Parent-subsidiary controlled group
The term “parent-subsidiary controlled group” means any controlled group of corporations described in section 1563 (a)(1). In determining the average adjusted bases of assets held by such a group, interests held by one member of such group in another member of such group shall be disregarded.
(B) Disqualification year
The term “disqualification year” means, with respect to any bank, the 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, for which such bank was a large bank if such bank maintained a reserve for bad debts for the preceding taxable year.
(C) Election made by each member
In the case of a parent-subsidiary controlled group, any election under this section shall be made separately by each member of such group.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, § 431(a),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 616; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A),Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, § 267(a),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 99–514, title IX, § 901(a), (d)(1),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2375, 2378; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, § 10301(b)(2),Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–429; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1009(a)(2), (3),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3445; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11801(a)(26), (c)(12)(C)–(E), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521, 1388–527; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1616(b)(6),Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1856.)
Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–188struck out “other than an organization to which section 593 applies” after “section 581)”.
1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11801(c)(12)(C), substituted “shall not exceed the addition to the reserve for losses on loans determined under the experience method as provided in paragraph (2).” for “shall not exceed the greater of—
“(A) for taxable years beginning before 1988 the addition to the reserve for losses on loans determined under the percentage method as provided in paragraph (2), or
“(B) the addition to the reserve for losses on loans determined under the experience method as provided in paragraph (3).”
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11801(a)(26), (c)(12)(D), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which related to use of percentage method for determining amount to add to reserve for bad debts.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11801(c)(12)(D), (E), redesignated par. (4) as (3), substituted heading for one which read: “Regulations; definition of eligible loan, etc.”, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary shall define the terms ‘loan’ and ‘eligible loan’ and prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section; except that the term ‘eligible loan’ shall not include—
“(A) a loan to a bank (as defined in section 581),
“(B) a loan to a domestic branch of a foreign corporation to which subsection (a)(2) applies,
“(C) a loan secured by a deposit (i) in the lending bank, or (ii) in an institution described in subparagraph (A) or (B) if the lending bank has control over withdrawal of such deposit,
“(D) a loan to or guaranteed by the United States, a possession or instrumentality thereof, or a State or a political subdivision thereof,
“(E) a loan evidenced by a security as defined in section 165 (g)(2)(C),
“(F) a loan of Federal funds, and
“(G) commercial paper, including short-term promissory notes which may be purchased on the open market.” Former par. (3) redesignated (2).
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11801(c)(12)(D), redesignated par. (4) as (3).
1988—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1009(a)(2)(B), substituted “such higher percentage of such net amount as the taxpayer may elect” for “such greater amount as the taxpayer may designate”.
Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1009(a)(2)(C), substituted “elects a higher percentage” for “designates an amount”.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1009(a)(3), inserted at end “If the amount of the reserve referred to in subparagraph (B) as of the close of any taxable year exceeds the outstanding balance (as of such time) of the loans referred to in subparagraph (B), such excess shall be included in gross income for such taxable year.”
Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1009(a)(2)(A), added subpar. (C).
1987—Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–203substituted “section 6655 (e)(2)(A)(i)” for “section 6655 (d)(3)”.
1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, § 901(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “This section shall apply to the following financial institutions:
“(1) any bank (as defined in section 581) other than an organization to which section 593 applies, and
“(2) any corporation to which paragraph (1) would apply except for the fact that it is a foreign corporation, and in the case of any such foreign corporation this section shall apply only with respect to loans outstanding the interest on which is effectively connected with the conduct of a banking business within the United States.”
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, § 901(d)(1), substituted “subsection (a)” for “section 166 (c)”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, § 901(a)(2), added subsec. (c).
1981—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–34defined “allowable percentage” to mean 1.0 percent for taxable years beginning in 1982 and 0.6 percent for taxable years beginning after 1982, previously so applicable for taxable years beginning after 1981 and redefined “base year” by substituting the last taxable year beginning before 1976 for taxable years beginning after 1975 but before 1983, for the last taxable year beginning before 1976 for taxable years after 1975 but before 1982; and the last taxable year beginning before 1983 for taxable years beginning after 1982, for the last taxable year beginning before 1982 for taxable years beginning after 1981.
1976—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 94–455struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, see section 1616(c) ofPub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 593 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) ofPub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, § 10301(c),Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–429, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6201, 6425, 6601, 6651, and 6655 of this title and repealing section 6154 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 901(e) ofPub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 166 of this title.
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title II, § 267(b),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 267, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after 1981.”
Effective Date

Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, § 431(d),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 620, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [enacting this section and section 586 of this title] and (c) [amending section 166 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after July 11, 1969.”
Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) ofPub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Written determinations for this section

These documents, sometimes referred to as "Private Letter Rulings", are taken from the IRS Written Determinations page; the IRS also publishes a fuller explanation of what they are and what they mean. The collection is updated (at our end) daily. It appears that the IRS updates their listing every Friday.

Note that the IRS often titles documents in a very plain-vanilla, duplicative way. Do not assume that identically-titled documents are the same, or that a later document supersedes another with the same title. That is unlikely to be the case.

Release dates appear exactly as we get them from the IRS. Some are clearly wrong, but we have made no attempt to correct them, as we have no way guess correctly in all cases, and do not wish to add to the confusion.

We truncate results at 20000 items. After that, you're on your own.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


26 CFR - Internal Revenue

26 CFR Part 1 - INCOME TAXES

26 CFR Part 301 - PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.