31 U.S. Code § 3720A - Reduction of tax refund by amount of debt

(a) Any Federal agency that is owed by a person a past-due, legally enforceable debt (including debt administered by a third party acting as an agent for the Federal Government) shall, and any agency subject to section 9 of the Act of May 18, 1933 (16 U.S.C. 831h), owed such a debt may, in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subsections (b) and (d), notify the Secretary of the Treasury at least once each year of the amount of such debt.
(b) No Federal agency may take action pursuant to subsection (a) with respect to any debt until such agency—
(1) notifies the person incurring such debt that such agency proposes to take action pursuant to such paragraph with respect to such debt;
(2) gives such person at least 60 days to present evidence that all or part of such debt is not past-due or not legally enforceable;
(3) considers any evidence presented by such person and determines that an amount of such debt is past due and legally enforceable;
(4) satisfies such other conditions as the Secretary may prescribe to ensure that the determination made under paragraph (3) with respect to such debt is valid and that the agency has made reasonable efforts (determined on a government-wide basis) to obtain payment of such debt; and
(5) certifies that reasonable efforts have been made by the agency (pursuant to regulations) to obtain payment of such debt.
(c) Upon receiving notice from any Federal agency that a named person owes to such agency a past-due legally enforceable debt, the Secretary of the Treasury shall determine whether any amounts, as refunds of Federal taxes paid, are payable to such person. If the Secretary of the Treasury finds that any such amount is payable, he shall reduce such refunds by an amount equal to the amount of such debt, pay the amount of such reduction to such agency, and notify such agency of the individual’s home address.
(d) The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations prescribing the time or times at which agencies must submit notices of past-due legally enforceable debts, the manner in which such notices must be submitted, and the necessary information that must be contained in or accompany the notices. The regulations shall specify the minimum amount of debt to which the reduction procedure established by subsection (c) may be applied and the fee that an agency must pay to reimburse the Secretary of the Treasury for the full cost of applying such procedure. Any fee paid to the Secretary pursuant to the preceding sentence may be used to reimburse appropriations which bore all or part of the cost of applying such procedure.
(e) Any Federal agency receiving notice from the Secretary of the Treasury that an erroneous payment has been made to such agency under subsection (c) shall pay promptly to the Secretary, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, an amount equal to the amount of such erroneous payment (without regard to whether any other amounts payable to such agency under such subsection have been paid to such agency).
(f)
(1) Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to an OASDI overpayment made to any individual only if such individual is not currently entitled to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act.
(2)
(A) The requirements of subsection (b) shall not be treated as met in the case of the recovery of an OASDI overpayment from any individual under this section unless the notification under subsection (b)(1) describes the conditions under which the Commissioner of Social Security is required to waive recovery of an overpayment, as provided under section 204(b) of the Social Security Act.
(B) In any case in which an individual files for a waiver under section 204(b) of the Social Security Act within the 60-day period referred to in subsection (b)(2), the Commissioner of Social Security shall not certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the debt is valid under subsection (b)(4) before rendering a decision on the waiver request under such section 204(b). In lieu of payment, pursuant to subsection (c), to the Commissioner of Social Security of the amount of any reduction under this subsection based on an OASDI overpayment, the Secretary of the Treasury shall deposit such amount in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, whichever is certified to the Secretary of the Treasury as appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security.
(g) In the case of refunds of business associations, this section shall apply only to refunds payable on or after January 1, 1995. In the case of refunds of individuals who owe debts to Federal agencies that have not participated in the Federal tax refund offset program prior to the date of enactment of this subsection, this section shall apply only to refunds payable on or after January 1, 1994.
(h)
(1)   [1] The disbursing official of the Department of the Treasury—
(1)   [1] shall notify a taxpayer in writing of—
(A) the occurrence of an offset to satisfy a past-due legally enforceable nontax debt;
(B) the identity of the creditor agency requesting the offset; and
(C) a contact point within the creditor agency that will handle concerns regarding the offset;
(2)   [1] shall notify the Internal Revenue Service on a weekly basis of—
(A) the occurrence of an offset to satisfy a past-due legally enforceable non-tax  [2] debt;
(B) the amount of such offset; and
(C) any other information required by regulations; and
(3) shall match payment records with requests for offset by using a name control, taxpayer identifying number (as that term is used in section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and any other necessary identifiers.
(h)   [1] The term “disbursing official” of the Department of the Treasury means the Secretary or his designee.
(i) An agency subject to section 9 of the Act of May 18, 1933 (16 U.S.C. 831h), may implement this section at its discretion.


[1]  So in original. Subsec. (h) contains two pars. designated (1) and (2).

[2]  So in original. Probably should not be hyphenated.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2653(a)(1),July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1153; amended Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5129(b),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–287; Pub. L. 102–589, § 3,Nov. 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 5133; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 108(j)(2),Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1488; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, § 31001(u)(1), (v)(1), (w),Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–375.)
References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 204 of the Act is classified to section 404 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 102–589, which was approved Nov. 10, 1992.
Section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (h)(3), is classified to section 6109 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(v)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Any Federal agency that is owed a past-due legally enforceable debt (other than any past-due support), including debt administered by a third party acting as an agent for the Federal Government, by a named person shall, in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subsections (b) and (d), notify the Secretary of the Treasury at least once a year of the amount of all such debt.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(w), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: “For purposes of this section—
“(1) the term ‘Federal agency’ means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States (other than an agency subject to section 9 of the Act of May 18, 1933 (48 Stat. 63, chapter 32; 16 U.S.C. 831h)), and includes a Government corporation (as such term is defined in section 103 of title 5, United States Code);
“(2) the term ‘past-due support’ means any delinquency subject to section 464 of the Social Security Act;
“(3) the term ‘OASDI overpayment’ means any overpayment of benefits made to an individual under title II of the Social Security Act; and
“(4) the term ‘person’ means an individual; or a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, nonprofit organization, or any other form of business association.”
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(u)(1), added subsec. (i).
1994—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 103–296substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” wherever appearing.
1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–589, § 3(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Any Federal agency that is owed a past-due legally enforceable debt (other than any past-due support) by a named person shall, in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subsection (d), notify the Secretary of the Treasury of the amount of such debt.”
Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 102–589, § 3(2), struck out “and” at end of par. (3), substituted “(determined on a government-wide basis) to obtain payment of such debt; and” for “to obtain payment of such debt.” in par. (4), and added par. (5).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–589, § 3(5), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–589, § 3(3), (4), redesignatedsubsec. (g) as (h) and added par. (4).
1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5129(b)(1), struck out “OASDI overpayment and” after “other than any”.
Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5129(b)(2), (3), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–296effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) ofPub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–589effective as if enacted on Sept. 30, 1992, see section 7 ofPub. L. 102–589, set out as a note under section 3718 of this title.
Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508effective Jan. 1, 1991, and inapplicable to refunds to which amendments by section 2653 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, do not apply, see section 5129(d) ofPub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 6402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to refunds payable under section 6402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 2653(c) ofPub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 6402 of Title 26.
Clarification of Congressional Intent as to Scope of Amendments by Section 2653 of Pub. L. 98–369

For provisions that nothing in amendments by section 2653 ofPub. L. 98–369, enacting this section, be construed as exempting debts of corporations or any other category of persons from application of such amendments, with such amendments to extend to all Federal agencies (as defined in such amendments), see section 9402(b) ofPub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 6402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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31 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


5 CFR - Administrative Personnel

5 CFR Part 179 - CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS

5 CFR Part 835 - DEBT COLLECTION

5 CFR Part 1639 - CLAIMS COLLECTION

6 CFR - Domestic Security

6 CFR Part 11 - CLAIMS

7 CFR - Agriculture

7 CFR Part 3 - DEBT MANAGEMENT

9 CFR - Animals and Animal Products

9 CFR Part 130 - USER FEES

10 CFR - Energy

10 CFR Part 15 - DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES

10 CFR Part 16 - SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

11 CFR - Federal Elections

11 CFR Part 111 - COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a))

12 CFR - Banks and Banking

12 CFR Part 797 - PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION

12 CFR Part 1208 - DEBT COLLECTION

13 CFR - Business Credit and Assistance

13 CFR Part 140 - DEBT COLLECTION

14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 1261 - PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL)

17 CFR - Commodity and Securities Exchanges

17 CFR Part 143 - COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES ARISING FROM ACTIVITIES UNDER THE COMMISSION'S JURISDICTION

17 CFR Part 204 - RULES RELATING TO DEBT COLLECTION

19 CFR - Customs Duties

19 CFR Part 201 - RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION

20 CFR - Employees' Benefits

20 CFR Part 366 - COLLECTION OF DEBTS BY FEDERAL TAX REFUND OFFSET

20 CFR Part 404 - FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950-)

20 CFR Part 408 - SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS

20 CFR Part 416 - SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED

22 CFR - Foreign Relations

22 CFR Part 309 - DEBT COLLECTION

24 CFR - Housing and Urban Development

24 CFR Part 17 - ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS

25 CFR - Indians

25 CFR Part 513 - DEBT COLLECTION

28 CFR - Judicial Administration

28 CFR Part 11 - DEBT COLLECTION

29 CFR - Labor

29 CFR Part 20 - FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION

29 CFR Part 1650 - DEBT COLLECTION

29 CFR Part 4903 - DEBT COLLECTION

30 CFR - Mineral Resources

30 CFR Part 1207 - SALES AGREEMENTS OR CONTRACTS GOVERNING THE DISPOSAL OF LEASE PRODUCTS

30 CFR Part 1218 - COLLECTION OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, BONUSES, AND OTHER MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

31 CFR - Money and Finance: Treasury

31 CFR Part 5 - TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION

31 CFR Part 285 - DEBT COLLECTION AUTHORITIES UNDER THE DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1996

32 CFR - National Defense

32 CFR Part 537 - CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES

34 CFR - Education

34 CFR Part 30 - DEBT COLLECTION

36 CFR - Parks, Forests, and Public Property

36 CFR Part 1201 - COLLECTION OF CLAIMS

40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 13 - CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS

45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 30 - CLAIMS COLLECTION

45 CFR Part 31 - TAX REFUND OFFSET

45 CFR Part 608 - CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET

45 CFR Part 1150 - COLLECTION OF CLAIMS

45 CFR Part 2506 - COLLECTION OF DEBTS

47 CFR - Telecommunication

47 CFR Part 1 - PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE

49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 89 - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT

49 CFR Part 1018 - DEBT COLLECTION

 

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