(a) General Penalty and Civil Actions To Collect.—
(1)A person that violates section
33114(a)(1)–(4) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. The failure of more than one part of a single motor vehicle to conform to an applicable standard under section
33103 of this title is only a single violation. The maximum penalty under this subsection for a related series of violations is $250,000.
(2)The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection. The Secretary may compromise the amount of a penalty.
(3)In determining the amount of a civil penalty or compromise under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the size of the person’s business and the gravity of the violation.
(4)The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a United States district court to collect a civil penalty imposed under this subsection.
(5)The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this subsection from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.
(b) Chop Shop Penalty and Enforcement.—
(1)A person that violates section
33114(a)(5) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $100,000 a day for each violation.
(2)As appropriate and in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary shall—
(A)bring a civil action for a temporary or permanent injunction to restrain a person violating section 33114(a)(5) of this section;
(B)impose and recover the penalty described in paragraph (1) of this subsection; or
(C)take both the actions described in clauses (A) and (B) of this paragraph.
(c) Civil Actions To Enforce.—
(1)The Attorney General may bring a civil action in a United States district court to enjoin a violation of this chapter or the sale, offer for sale, introduction or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce, or importation into the United States, of a passenger motor vehicle containing a major part, or of a major replacement part, that is subject to the standard and is determined before the sale of the vehicle or part to a first purchaser not to conform to the standard.
(A)When practicable, the Secretary—
(i)shall notify a person against whom an action under this subsection is planned;
(ii)shall give the person an opportunity to present that person’s views; and
(iii)except for a knowing and willful violation, shall give the person a reasonable opportunity to comply.
(B)The failure of the Secretary to comply with subparagraph (A) of this paragraph does not prevent a court from granting appropriate relief.
(d) Jury Trial Demand.— In a trial for criminal contempt for violating an injunction or restraining order issued under subsection (c) of this section, the violation of which is also a violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial. The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).
(e) Venue.— A civil action under subsection (a) or (c) of this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant resides, is found, or transacts business. Process in the action may be served in any other judicial district in which the defendant resides or is found. A subpena for a witness in the action may be served in any judicial district.
In subsection (a)(1), the words “section
33114(a)(1)–(4)” are used to correct an erroneous cross-reference in section 611(a)(1) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (Public Law 92–513, 86 Stat. 947) to section 607 of that Act. Sections
611 were redesignated by section 306(a) of the Anti Car Theft Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–519, 106 Stat. 3397). The words “is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty” are substituted for “may be assessed a civil penalty” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.
In subsection (a)(2), the word “imposes” is substituted for “assessed” for consistency.
In subsection (a)(3), the words “the appropriateness of such penalty to” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (a)(5), the words “United States district court” are added for clarity and consistency in the revised title.
In subsection (c)(1), the words “The Attorney General may bring a civil action” are substituted for “Upon petition by the Attorney General” for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “on behalf of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The words “shall have jurisdiction” are omitted because of 28:1331. The words “for cause shown and subject to the provisions of rule 65(a) and (b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure” are omitted as surplus because the rules apply in the absence of an exception from them. The word “enjoin” is substituted for “restrain” for consistency in the revised title.
In subsection (d), the words “the defendant may demand a jury trial” are substituted for “trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.