(a) Jurisdiction of district court; referral of civil actions to Attorney General
(1)A district court of the United States shall have jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain a person from violating an order, rule, or regulation issued under this chapter.
(2)A civil action authorized to be brought under this subsection shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action, except that the Secretary is not required to refer to the Attorney General a violation of this chapter if the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of this chapter would be adequately served by providing a suitable written notice or warning to a person who committed such violation or by administrative action under subsection (b) of this section.
(b) Penalties for willful violations; issuance of cease-and-desist orders; judicial review of orders; penalty for failure to obey cease-and-desist order
(A)A person who willfully violates an order, rule, or regulation issued by the Secretary under this chapter may be assessed—
(i)a civil penalty by the Secretary of not more than $1,000 for each such violation; and
(ii)in the case of a willful failure to pay, collect, or remit an assessment as required by an order, an additional penalty equal to the amount of such assessment.
(B)Each such violation shall be a separate offense.
(C)In addition to or in lieu of such civil penalty, the Secretary may issue an order requiring such person to cease and desist from violating such order, rule, or regulation.
(D)No penalty may be assessed or cease-and-desist order issued unless the Secretary gives such person notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record with respect to such violation.
(E)An order issued under this paragraph by the Secretary shall be final and conclusive unless such person files an appeal from such order with the appropriate United States court of appeals not later than 30 days after such person receives notice of such order.
(A)A person against whom an order is issued under paragraph (1) may obtain review of such order in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which such person resides or does business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, by—
(i)filing a notice of appeal in such court not later than 30 days after the date of such order; and
(ii)simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Secretary.
(B)The Secretary shall file promptly in such court a certified copy of the record on which such violation was found.
(C)A finding of the Secretary shall be set aside only if the finding is found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
(A)A person who fails to obey a valid cease-and-desist order issued under paragraph (1) by the Secretary, after an opportunity for a hearing, shall be subject to a civil penalty assessed by the Secretary of not more than $500 for each offense.
(B)Each day during which such failure continues shall be considered a separate violation of such order.
(A)If a person fails to pay a valid civil penalty imposed under this subsection by the Secretary, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for recovery of the amount assessed in an appropriate district court of the United States.
(B)In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the order imposing such civil penalty shall not be subject to review.
(c) Availability of additional remedies
The remedies provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, other remedies that may be available.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.