Under the state-action doctrine elucidated in Parker v. Brown, 317 U.S. 341 (1943), state and municipal authorities are immune from federal antitrust lawsuits for actions taken pursuant to a clearly expressed state policy that, when legislated, had foreseeable anticompetitive effects. When a state approves and regulates certain conduct, even if it is anticompetitive under FTC or DOJ standards, the federal government must respect the decision of the state. Therefore, if a state sanctions anticompetitive conduct, the state is immune from investigation and possible prosecution by the FTC.
This doctrine can apply to provide immunity to non-state actors as well if a two-pronged requirement is met: (1) there must be a clearly articulated policy to displace competition; and (2) there must be active supervision by the state of the policy or activity.
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