|Syllabus ||Opinion |
[ Scalia ]
[ Thomas ]
The syllabus constitutes no part of the opinion of the Court but has been prepared by the Reporter of Decisions for the convenience of the reader.
See United States v. Detroit Timber & Lumber Co., 200 U.S. 321, 337.
ONCALE v. SUNDOWNER OFFSHORE
SERVICES, INC., et al.
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT
No. 96568. Argued December 3, 1997Decided March 4, 1998
Petitioner Oncale filed a complaint against his employer, respondent Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., claiming that sexual harassment directed against him by respondent coworkers in their workplace constituted discriminat[ion] because of sex prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e2(a)(1). Relying on Fifth Circuit precedent, the District Court held that Oncale, a male, had no Title VII cause of action for harassment by male coworkers. The Fifth Circuit affirmed.
Held: Sex discrimination consisting of same-sex sexual harassment is actionable under Title VII. Title VIIs prohibition of discrimination because of sex protects men as well as women, Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. v. EEOC, 462 U.S. 669, 682, and in the related context of racial discrimination in the workplace this Court has rejected any conclusive presumption that an employer will not discriminate against members of his own race, Castaneda v. Partida, 430 U.S. 482, 499. There is no justification in Title VIIs language or the Courts precedents for a categorical rule barring a claim of discrimination because of sex merely because the plaintiff and the defendant (or the person charged with acting on behalf of the defendant) are of the same sex. Recognizing liability for same-sex harassment will not transform Title VII into a general civility code for the American workplace, since Title VII is directed at discrimination because of sex, not merely conduct tinged with offensive sexual connotations; since the statute does not reach genuine but innocuous differences in the ways men and women routinely interact with members of the same, and the opposite, sex; and since the objective severity of harassment should be judged from the perspective of a reasonable person in the plaintiffs position, considering all the circumstances. Pp. 27.83 F.3d 118, reversed and remanded.
Scalia, J., delivered the opinion for a unanimous Court. Thomas, J., filed a concurring opinion.