40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

§ 141.73 Filtration.
A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water, and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must provide treatment consisting of both disinfection, as specified in § 141.72(b), and filtration treatment which complies with the requirements of paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section by June 29, 1993, or within 18 months of the failure to meet any one of the criteria for avoiding filtration in § 141.71 (a) and (b), whichever is later. Failure to meet any requirement of this section after the date specified in this introductory paragraph is a treatment technique violation.
(a) Conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration.
(1) For systems using conventional filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 0.5 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1), except that if the State determines that the system is capable of achieving at least 99.9 percent removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However, in no case may the State approve a turbidity limit that allows more than 1 NTU in more than 5 percent of the samples taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).
(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).
(3) Beginning January 1, 2002, systems serving at least 10,000 people must meet the turbidity requirements in § 141.173(a).
(4) Beginning January 1, 2005, systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must meet the turbidity requirements in §§ 141.550 through 141.553.
(b) Slow sand filtration.
(1) For systems using slow sand filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 1 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1), except that if the State determines there is no significant interference with disinfection at a higher turbidity level, the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system.
(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).
(c) Diatomaceous earth filtration.
(1) For systems using diatomaceous earth filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or equal to 1 NTU in at least 95 percent of the measurements taken each month, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).
(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must at no time exceed 5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1).
(d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a filtration technology not listed in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section if it demonstrates to the State, using pilot plant studies or other means, that the alternative filtration technology, in combination with disinfection treatment that meets the requirements of § 141.72(b), consistently achieves 99.9 percent removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts and 99.99 percent removal and/or inactivation of viruses. For a system that makes this demonstration, the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section apply. Beginning January 1, 2002, systems serving at least 10,000 people must meet the requirements for other filtration technologies in § 141.173(b). Beginning January 14, 2005, systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must meet the requirements for other filtration technologies in § 141.550 through 141.553.
[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998; 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001; 67 FR 1836, Jan. 14, 2002; 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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