15 U.S. Code § 1681i - Procedure in case of disputed accuracy

(a) Reinvestigations of disputed information
(1) Reinvestigation required
(A) In general
Subject to subsection (f) of this section, if the completeness or accuracy of any item of information contained in a consumer’s file at a consumer reporting agency is disputed by the consumer and the consumer notifies the agency directly, or indirectly through a reseller, of such dispute, the agency shall, free of charge, conduct a reasonable reinvestigation to determine whether the disputed information is inaccurate and record the current status of the disputed information, or delete the item from the file in accordance with paragraph (5), before the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date on which the agency receives the notice of the dispute from the consumer or reseller.
(B) Extension of period to reinvestigate
Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the 30-day period described in subparagraph (A) may be extended for not more than 15 additional days if the consumer reporting agency receives information from the consumer during that 30-day period that is relevant to the reinvestigation.
(C) Limitations on extension of period to reinvestigate
Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any reinvestigation in which, during the 30-day period described in subparagraph (A), the information that is the subject of the reinvestigation is found to be inaccurate or incomplete or the consumer reporting agency determines that the information cannot be verified.
(2) Prompt notice of dispute to furnisher of information
(A) In general
Before the expiration of the 5-business-day period beginning on the date on which a consumer reporting agency receives notice of a dispute from any consumer or a reseller in accordance with paragraph (1), the agency shall provide notification of the dispute to any person who provided any item of information in dispute, at the address and in the manner established with the person. The notice shall include all relevant information regarding the dispute that the agency has received from the consumer or reseller.
(B) Provision of other information
The consumer reporting agency shall promptly provide to the person who provided the information in dispute all relevant information regarding the dispute that is received by the agency from the consumer or the reseller after the period referred to in subparagraph (A) and before the end of the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A).
(3) Determination that dispute is frivolous or irrelevant
(A) In general
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a consumer reporting agency may terminate a reinvestigation of information disputed by a consumer under that paragraph if the agency reasonably determines that the dispute by the consumer is frivolous or irrelevant, including by reason of a failure by a consumer to provide sufficient information to investigate the disputed information.
(B) Notice of determination
Upon making any determination in accordance with subparagraph (A) that a dispute is frivolous or irrelevant, a consumer reporting agency shall notify the consumer of such determination not later than 5 business days after making such determination, by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by any other means available to the agency.
(C) Contents of notice
A notice under subparagraph (B) shall include—
(i) the reasons for the determination under subparagraph (A); and
(ii) identification of any information required to investigate the disputed information, which may consist of a standardized form describing the general nature of such information.
(4) Consideration of consumer information
In conducting any reinvestigation under paragraph (1) with respect to disputed information in the file of any consumer, the consumer reporting agency shall review and consider all relevant information submitted by the consumer in the period described in paragraph (1)(A) with respect to such disputed information.
(5) Treatment of inaccurate or unverifiable information
(A) In general
If, after any reinvestigation under paragraph (1) of any information disputed by a consumer, an item of the information is found to be inaccurate or incomplete or cannot be verified, the consumer reporting agency shall—
(i) promptly delete that item of information from the file of the consumer, or modify that item of information, as appropriate, based on the results of the reinvestigation; and
(ii) promptly notify the furnisher of that information that the information has been modified or deleted from the file of the consumer.
(B) Requirements relating to reinsertion of previously deleted material
(i) Certification of accuracy of information If any information is deleted from a consumer’s file pursuant to subparagraph (A), the information may not be reinserted in the file by the consumer reporting agency unless the person who furnishes the information certifies that the information is complete and accurate.
(ii) Notice to consumer If any information that has been deleted from a consumer’s file pursuant to subparagraph (A) is reinserted in the file, the consumer reporting agency shall notify the consumer of the reinsertion in writing not later than 5 business days after the reinsertion or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by any other means available to the agency.
(iii) Additional information As part of, or in addition to, the notice under clause (ii), a consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer in writing not later than 5 business days after the date of the reinsertion—
(I) a statement that the disputed information has been reinserted;
(II) the business name and address of any furnisher of information contacted and the telephone number of such furnisher, if reasonably available, or of any furnisher of information that contacted the consumer reporting agency, in connection with the reinsertion of such information; and
(III) a notice that the consumer has the right to add a statement to the consumer’s file disputing the accuracy or completeness of the disputed information.
(C) Procedures to prevent reappearance
A consumer reporting agency shall maintain reasonable procedures designed to prevent the reappearance in a consumer’s file, and in consumer reports on the consumer, of information that is deleted pursuant to this paragraph (other than information that is reinserted in accordance with subparagraph (B)(i)).
(D) Automated reinvestigation system
Any consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis shall implement an automated system through which furnishers of information to that consumer reporting agency may report the results of a reinvestigation that finds incomplete or inaccurate information in a consumer’s file to other such consumer reporting agencies.
(6) Notice of results of reinvestigation
(A) In general
A consumer reporting agency shall provide written notice to a consumer of the results of a reinvestigation under this subsection not later than 5 business days after the completion of the reinvestigation, by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by other means available to the agency.
(B) Contents
As part of, or in addition to, the notice under subparagraph (A), a consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer in writing before the expiration of the 5-day period referred to in subparagraph (A)—
(i) a statement that the reinvestigation is completed;
(ii) a consumer report that is based upon the consumer’s file as that file is revised as a result of the reinvestigation;
(iii) a notice that, if requested by the consumer, a description of the procedure used to determine the accuracy and completeness of the information shall be provided to the consumer by the agency, including the business name and address of any furnisher of information contacted in connection with such information and the telephone number of such furnisher, if reasonably available;
(iv) a notice that the consumer has the right to add a statement to the consumer’s file disputing the accuracy or completeness of the information; and
(v) a notice that the consumer has the right to request under subsection (d) of this section that the consumer reporting agency furnish notifications under that subsection.
(7) Description of reinvestigation procedure
A consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer a description referred to in paragraph (6)(B)(iii) by not later than 15 days after receiving a request from the consumer for that description.
(8) Expedited dispute resolution
If a dispute regarding an item of information in a consumer’s file at a consumer reporting agency is resolved in accordance with paragraph (5)(A) by the deletion of the disputed information by not later than 3 business days after the date on which the agency receives notice of the dispute from the consumer in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), then the agency shall not be required to comply with paragraphs (2), (6), and (7) with respect to that dispute if the agency—
(A) provides prompt notice of the deletion to the consumer by telephone;
(B) includes in that notice, or in a written notice that accompanies a confirmation and consumer report provided in accordance with subparagraph (C), a statement of the consumer’s right to request under subsection (d) of this section that the agency furnish notifications under that subsection; and
(C) provides written confirmation of the deletion and a copy of a consumer report on the consumer that is based on the consumer’s file after the deletion, not later than 5 business days after making the deletion.
(b) Statement of dispute
If the reinvestigation does not resolve the dispute, the consumer may file a brief statement setting forth the nature of the dispute. The consumer reporting agency may limit such statements to not more than one hundred words if it provides the consumer with assistance in writing a clear summary of the dispute.
(c) Notification of consumer dispute in subsequent consumer reports
Whenever a statement of a dispute is filed, unless there is reasonable grounds to believe that it is frivolous or irrelevant, the consumer reporting agency shall, in any subsequent consumer report containing the information in question, clearly note that it is disputed by the consumer and provide either the consumer’s statement or a clear and accurate codification or summary thereof.
(d) Notification of deletion of disputed information
Following any deletion of information which is found to be inaccurate or whose accuracy can no longer be verified or any notation as to disputed information, the consumer reporting agency shall, at the request of the consumer, furnish notification that the item has been deleted or the statement, codification or summary pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) of this section to any person specifically designated by the consumer who has within two years prior thereto received a consumer report for employment purposes, or within six months prior thereto received a consumer report for any other purpose, which contained the deleted or disputed information.
(e) Treatment of complaints and report to Congress
(1) In general
The Commission  [1] shall—
(A) compile all complaints that it receives that a file of a consumer that is maintained by a consumer reporting agency described in section 1681a (p) of this title contains incomplete or inaccurate information, with respect to which, the consumer appears to have disputed the completeness or accuracy with the consumer reporting agency or otherwise utilized the procedures provided by subsection (a) of this section; and
(B) transmit each such complaint to each consumer reporting agency involved.
(2) Exclusion
Complaints received or obtained by the Bureau pursuant to its investigative authority under the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 shall not be subject to paragraph (1).
(3) Agency responsibilities
Each consumer reporting agency described in section 1681a (p) of this title that receives a complaint transmitted by the Bureau pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—
(A) review each such complaint to determine whether all legal obligations imposed on the consumer reporting agency under this subchapter (including any obligation imposed by an applicable court or administrative order) have been met with respect to the subject matter of the complaint;
(B) provide reports on a regular basis to the Bureau regarding the determinations of and actions taken by the consumer reporting agency, if any, in connection with its review of such complaints; and
(C) maintain, for a reasonable time period, records regarding the disposition of each such complaint that is sufficient to demonstrate compliance with this subsection.
(4) Rulemaking authority
The Commission  [1] may prescribe regulations, as appropriate to implement this subsection.
(5) Annual report
The Commission  [1] shall submit to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives an annual report regarding information gathered by the Bureau under this subsection.
(f) Reinvestigation requirement applicable to resellers
(1) Exemption from general reinvestigation requirement
Except as provided in paragraph (2), a reseller shall be exempt from the requirements of this section.
(2) Action required upon receiving notice of a dispute
If a reseller receives a notice from a consumer of a dispute concerning the completeness or accuracy of any item of information contained in a consumer report on such consumer produced by the reseller, the reseller shall, within 5 business days of receiving the notice, and free of charge—
(A) determine whether the item of information is incomplete or inaccurate as a result of an act or omission of the reseller; and
(B) if—
(i) the reseller determines that the item of information is incomplete or inaccurate as a result of an act or omission of the reseller, not later than 20 days after receiving the notice, correct the information in the consumer report or delete it; or
(ii) if the reseller determines that the item of information is not incomplete or inaccurate as a result of an act or omission of the reseller, convey the notice of the dispute, together with all relevant information provided by the consumer, to each consumer reporting agency that provided the reseller with the information that is the subject of the dispute, using an address or a notification mechanism specified by the consumer reporting agency for such notices.
(3) Responsibility of consumer reporting agency to notify consumer through reseller
Upon the completion of a reinvestigation under this section of a dispute concerning the completeness or accuracy of any information in the file of a consumer by a consumer reporting agency that received notice of the dispute from a reseller under paragraph (2)—
(A) the notice by the consumer reporting agency under paragraph (6), (7), or (8) of subsection (a) of this section shall be provided to the reseller in lieu of the consumer; and
(B) the reseller shall immediately reconvey such notice to the consumer, including any notice of a deletion by telephone in the manner required under paragraph (8)(A).
(4) Reseller reinvestigations
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as prohibiting a reseller from conducting a reinvestigation of a consumer dispute directly.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “Bureau”.

Source

(Pub. L. 90–321, title VI, § 611, as added Pub. L. 91–508, title VI, § 601,Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1132; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, § 2409,Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–439; Pub. L. 105–347, § 6(5),Nov. 2, 1998, 112 Stat. 3211; Pub. L. 108–159, title III, §§ 313(a), 314 (a), 316, 317,Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1994–1996, 1998; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, § 1088(a)(2)(C), (6),July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2087.)
References in Text

The Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is title X of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955, which enacted subchapter V (§ 5481 et seq.) of chapter 53 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacted and amended numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 12 and Tables.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(6), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Complaints received or obtained by the Commission pursuant to its investigative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act shall not be subject to paragraph (1).”
Subsec. (e)(3), (5). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(2)(C), substituted “the Bureau” for “the Commission” wherever appearing.
2003—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108–159, § 317, substituted “shall, free of charge, conduct a reasonable reinvestigation to determine whether the disputed information is inaccurate” for “shall reinvestigate free of charge”.
Pub. L. 108–159, § 316(a)(1), substituted “Subject to subsection (f) of this section, if the completeness” for “If the completeness” and inserted “, or indirectly through a reseller,” after “notifies the agency directly” and “or reseller” before period at end.
Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–159, § 316(a)(2), inserted “or a reseller” after “dispute from any consumer” and “or reseller” before period at end.
Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–159, § 316(c), struck out “from consumer” after “information” in heading.
Pub. L. 108–159, § 316(a)(3), inserted “or the reseller” after “from the consumer”.
Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 108–159, § 314(a), substituted “shall—” and cls. (i) and (ii) for “shall promptly delete that item of information from the consumer’s file or modify that item of information, as appropriate, based on the results of the reinvestigation.”
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–159, § 313(a), added subsec. (e).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–159, § 316(b), added subsec. (f).
1998—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 105–347substituted “(6)(B)(iii)” for “(6)(B)(iv)”.
1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2409(a), inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If the completeness or accuracy of any item of information contained in his file is disputed by a consumer, and such dispute is directly conveyed to the consumer reporting agency by the consumer, the consumer reporting agency shall within a reasonable period of time reinvestigate and record the current status of that information unless it has reasonable grounds to believe that the dispute by the consumer is frivolous or irrelevant. If after such reinvestigation such information is found to be inaccurate or can no longer be verified, the consumer reporting agency shall promptly delete such information. The presence of contradictory information in the consumer’s file does not in and of itself constitute reasonable grounds for believing the dispute is frivolous or irrelevant.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2409(b), struck out at end “The consumer reporting agency shall clearly and conspicuously disclose to the consumer his rights to make such a request. Such disclosure shall be made at or prior to the time the information is deleted or the consumer’s statement regarding the disputed information is received.”
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–159subject to joint regulations establishing effective dates as prescribed by Federal Reserve Board and Federal Trade Commission, except as otherwise provided, see section 3 ofPub. L. 108–159, set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–347deemed to have same effective date as amendments made by section 2403 ofPub. L. 104–208, see section 7 ofPub. L. 105–347, set out as a note under section 1681a of this title.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208effective 365 days after Sept. 30, 1996, with special rule for early compliance, see section 2420 ofPub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1681a of this title.
Prompt Investigation of Disputed Consumer Information

Pub. L. 108–159, title III, § 313(b),Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1994, provided that:
“(1) Study required.—The Board and the Commission shall jointly study the extent to which, and the manner in which, consumer reporting agencies and furnishers of consumer information to consumer reporting agencies are complying with the procedures, time lines, and requirements under the Fair Credit Reporting Act [this subchapter] for the prompt investigation of the disputed accuracy of any consumer information, the completeness of the information provided to consumer reporting agencies, and the prompt correction or deletion, in accordance with such Act, of any inaccurate or incomplete information or information that cannot be verified.
“(2) Report required.—Before the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2003], the Board and the Commission shall jointly submit a progress report to the Congress on the results of the study required under paragraph (1).
“(3) Considerations.—In preparing the report required under paragraph (2), the Board and the Commission shall consider information relating to complaints compiled by the Commission under section 611(e) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act [15 U.S.C. 1681i (e)], as added by this section.
“(4) Recommendations.—The report required under paragraph (2) shall include such recommendations as the Board and the Commission jointly determine to be appropriate for legislative or administrative action, to ensure that—
“(A) consumer disputes with consumer reporting agencies over the accuracy or completeness of information in a consumer’s file are promptly and fully investigated and any incorrect, incomplete, or unverifiable information is corrected or deleted immediately thereafter;
“(B) furnishers of information to consumer reporting agencies maintain full and prompt compliance with the duties and responsibilities established under section 623 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act [15 U.S.C. 1681s–2]; and
“(C) consumer reporting agencies establish and maintain appropriate internal controls and management review procedures for maintaining full and continuous compliance with the procedures, time lines, and requirements under the Fair Credit Reporting Act [this subchapter] for the prompt investigation of the disputed accuracy of any consumer information and the prompt correction or deletion, in accordance with such Act, of any inaccurate or incomplete information or information that cannot be verified.”
[For definitions of terms used in section 313(b) ofPub. L. 108–159, set out above, see section 2 ofPub. L. 108–159, set out as a Definitions note under section 1681 of this title.]

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12 CFR - Banks and Banking

12 CFR Part 1022 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V)

14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 374 - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS

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16 CFR Part 1 - GENERAL PROCEDURES

 

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