15 U.S. Code § 1681s–2 - Responsibilities of furnishers of information to consumer reporting agencies

(a) Duty of furnishers of information to provide accurate information
(1) Prohibition
(A) Reporting information with actual knowledge of errors
A person shall not furnish any information relating to a consumer to any consumer reporting agency if the person knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the information is inaccurate.
(B) Reporting information after notice and confirmation of errors
A person shall not furnish information relating to a consumer to any consumer reporting agency if—
(i) the person has been notified by the consumer, at the address specified by the person for such notices, that specific information is inaccurate; and
(ii) the information is, in fact, inaccurate.
(C) No address requirement
A person who clearly and conspicuously specifies to the consumer an address for notices referred to in subparagraph (B) shall not be subject to subparagraph (A); however, nothing in subparagraph (B) shall require a person to specify such an address.
(D) Definition
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “reasonable cause to believe that the information is inaccurate” means having specific knowledge, other than solely allegations by the consumer, that would cause a reasonable person to have substantial doubts about the accuracy of the information.
(2) Duty to correct and update information
A person who—
(A) regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to one or more consumer reporting agencies about the person’s transactions or experiences with any consumer; and
(B) has furnished to a consumer reporting agency information that the person determines is not complete or accurate,
shall promptly notify the consumer reporting agency of that determination and provide to the agency any corrections to that information, or any additional information, that is necessary to make the information provided by the person to the agency complete and accurate, and shall not thereafter furnish to the agency any of the information that remains not complete or accurate.
(3) Duty to provide notice of dispute
If the completeness or accuracy of any information furnished by any person to any consumer reporting agency is disputed to such person by a consumer, the person may not furnish the information to any consumer reporting agency without notice that such information is disputed by the consumer.
(4) Duty to provide notice of closed accounts
A person who regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency regarding a consumer who has a credit account with that person shall notify the agency of the voluntary closure of the account by the consumer, in information regularly furnished for the period in which the account is closed.
(5) Duty to provide notice of delinquency of accounts
(A) In general
A person who furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency regarding a delinquent account being placed for collection, charged to profit or loss, or subjected to any similar action shall, not later than 90 days after furnishing the information, notify the agency of the date of delinquency on the account, which shall be the month and year of the commencement of the delinquency on the account that immediately preceded the action.
(B) Rule of construction
For purposes of this paragraph only, and provided that the consumer does not dispute the information, a person that furnishes information on a delinquent account that is placed for collection, charged for profit or loss, or subjected to any similar action, complies with this paragraph, if—
(i) the person reports the same date of delinquency as that provided by the creditor to which the account was owed at the time at which the commencement of the delinquency occurred, if the creditor previously reported that date of delinquency to a consumer reporting agency;
(ii) the creditor did not previously report the date of delinquency to a consumer reporting agency, and the person establishes and follows reasonable procedures to obtain the date of delinquency from the creditor or another reliable source and reports that date to a consumer reporting agency as the date of delinquency; or
(iii) the creditor did not previously report the date of delinquency to a consumer reporting agency and the date of delinquency cannot be reasonably obtained as provided in clause (ii), the person establishes and follows reasonable procedures to ensure the date reported as the date of delinquency precedes the date on which the account is placed for collection, charged to profit or loss, or subjected to any similar action, and reports such date to the credit reporting agency.
(6) Duties of furnishers upon notice of identity theft-related information
(A) Reasonable procedures
A person that furnishes information to any consumer reporting agency shall have in place reasonable procedures to respond to any notification that it receives from a consumer reporting agency under section 1681c–2 of this title relating to information resulting from identity theft, to prevent that person from refurnishing such blocked information.
(B) Information alleged to result from identity theft
If a consumer submits an identity theft report to a person who furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency at the address specified by that person for receiving such reports stating that information maintained by such person that purports to relate to the consumer resulted from identity theft, the person may not furnish such information that purports to relate to the consumer to any consumer reporting agency, unless the person subsequently knows or is informed by the consumer that the information is correct.
(7) Negative information
(A) Notice to consumer required
(i) In general If any financial institution that extends credit and regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency described in section 1681a (p) of this title furnishes negative information to such an agency regarding credit extended to a customer, the financial institution shall provide a notice of such furnishing of negative information, in writing, to the customer.
(ii) Notice effective for subsequent submissions After providing such notice, the financial institution may submit additional negative information to a consumer reporting agency described in section 1681a (p) of this title with respect to the same transaction, extension of credit, account, or customer without providing additional notice to the customer.
(B) Time of notice
(i) In general The notice required under subparagraph (A) shall be provided to the customer prior to, or no later than 30 days after, furnishing the negative information to a consumer reporting agency described in section 1681a (p) of this title.
(ii) Coordination with new account disclosures If the notice is provided to the customer prior to furnishing the negative information to a consumer reporting agency, the notice may not be included in the initial disclosures provided under section 1637 (a) of this title.
(C) Coordination with other disclosures
The notice required under subparagraph (A)—
(i) may be included on or with any notice of default, any billing statement, or any other materials provided to the customer; and
(ii) must be clear and conspicuous.
(D) Model disclosure
(i) Duty of Bureau The Bureau shall prescribe a brief model disclosure that a financial institution may use to comply with subparagraph (A), which shall not exceed 30 words.
(ii) Use of model not required No provision of this paragraph may be construed to require a financial institution to use any such model form prescribed by the Bureau.
(iii) Compliance using model A financial institution shall be deemed to be in compliance with subparagraph (A) if the financial institution uses any model form prescribed by the Bureau under this subparagraph, or the financial institution uses any such model form and rearranges its format.
(E) Use of notice without submitting negative information
No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as requiring a financial institution that has provided a customer with a notice described in subparagraph (A) to furnish negative information about the customer to a consumer reporting agency.
(F) Safe harbor
A financial institution shall not be liable for failure to perform the duties required by this paragraph if, at the time of the failure, the financial institution maintained reasonable policies and procedures to comply with this paragraph or the financial institution reasonably believed that the institution is prohibited, by law, from contacting the consumer.
(G) Definitions
For purposes of this paragraph, the following definitions shall apply:
(i) Negative information The term “negative information” means information concerning a customer’s delinquencies, late payments, insolvency, or any form of default.
(ii) Customer; financial institution The terms “customer” and “financial institution” have the same meanings as in section 6809 of this title.
(8) Ability of consumer to dispute information directly with furnisher
(A) In general
The Bureau, in consultation with the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal banking agencies, and the National Credit Union Administration, shall prescribe regulations that shall identify the circumstances under which a furnisher shall be required to reinvestigate a dispute concerning the accuracy of information contained in a consumer report on the consumer, based on a direct request of a consumer.
(B) Considerations
In prescribing regulations under subparagraph (A), the agencies shall weigh—
(i) the benefits to consumers with the costs on furnishers and the credit reporting system;
(ii) the impact on the overall accuracy and integrity of consumer reports of any such requirements;
(iii) whether direct contact by the consumer with the furnisher would likely result in the most expeditious resolution of any such dispute; and
(iv) the potential impact on the credit reporting process if credit repair organizations, as defined in section 1679a (3) of this title, including entities that would be a credit repair organization, but for section 1679a (3)(B)(i) of this title, are able to circumvent the prohibition in subparagraph (G).
(C) Applicability
Subparagraphs (D) through (G) shall apply in any circumstance identified under the regulations promulgated under subparagraph (A).
(D) Submitting a notice of dispute
A consumer who seeks to dispute the accuracy of information shall provide a dispute notice directly to such person at the address specified by the person for such notices that—
(i) identifies the specific information that is being disputed;
(ii) explains the basis for the dispute; and
(iii) includes all supporting documentation required by the furnisher to substantiate the basis of the dispute.
(E) Duty of person after receiving notice of dispute
After receiving a notice of dispute from a consumer pursuant to subparagraph (D), the person that provided the information in dispute to a consumer reporting agency shall—
(i) conduct an investigation with respect to the disputed information;
(ii) review all relevant information provided by the consumer with the notice;
(iii) complete such person’s investigation of the dispute and report the results of the investigation to the consumer before the expiration of the period under section 1681i (a)(1) of this title within which a consumer reporting agency would be required to complete its action if the consumer had elected to dispute the information under that section; and
(iv) if the investigation finds that the information reported was inaccurate, promptly notify each consumer reporting agency to which the person furnished the inaccurate information of that determination and provide to the agency any correction to that information that is necessary to make the information provided by the person accurate.
(F) Frivolous or irrelevant dispute
(i) In general This paragraph shall not apply if the person receiving a notice of a dispute from a consumer reasonably determines that the dispute is frivolous or irrelevant, including—
(I) by reason of the failure of a consumer to provide sufficient information to investigate the disputed information; or
(II) the submission by a consumer of a dispute that is substantially the same as a dispute previously submitted by or for the consumer, either directly to the person or through a consumer reporting agency under subsection (b) of this section, with respect to which the person has already performed the person’s duties under this paragraph or subsection (b) of this section, as applicable.
(ii) Notice of determination Upon making any determination under clause (i) that a dispute is frivolous or irrelevant, the person shall notify the consumer of such determination not later than 5 business days after making such determination, by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by any other means available to the person.
(iii) Contents of notice A notice under clause (ii) shall include—
(I) the reasons for the determination under clause (i); and
(II) identification of any information required to investigate the disputed information, which may consist of a standardized form describing the general nature of such information.
(G) Exclusion of credit repair organizations
This paragraph shall not apply if the notice of the dispute is submitted by, is prepared on behalf of the consumer by, or is submitted on a form supplied to the consumer by, a credit repair organization, as defined in section 1679a (3) of this title, or an entity that would be a credit repair organization, but for section 1679a (3)(B)(i) of this title.
(9) Duty to provide notice of status as medical information furnisher
A person whose primary business is providing medical services, products, or devices, or the person’s agent or assignee, who furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency on a consumer shall be considered a medical information furnisher for purposes of this subchapter, and shall notify the agency of such status.
(b) Duties of furnishers of information upon notice of dispute
(1) In general
After receiving notice pursuant to section 1681i (a)(2) of this title of a dispute with regard to the completeness or accuracy of any information provided by a person to a consumer reporting agency, the person shall—
(A) conduct an investigation with respect to the disputed information;
(B) review all relevant information provided by the consumer reporting agency pursuant to section 1681i (a)(2) of this title;
(C) report the results of the investigation to the consumer reporting agency;
(D) if the investigation finds that the information is incomplete or inaccurate, report those results to all other consumer reporting agencies to which the person furnished the information and that compile and maintain files on consumers on a nationwide basis; and
(E) if an item of information disputed by a consumer is found to be inaccurate or incomplete or cannot be verified after any reinvestigation under paragraph (1), for purposes of reporting to a consumer reporting agency only, as appropriate, based on the results of the reinvestigation promptly—
(i) modify that item of information;
(ii) delete that item of information; or
(iii) permanently block the reporting of that item of information.
(2) Deadline
A person shall complete all investigations, reviews, and reports required under paragraph (1) regarding information provided by the person to a consumer reporting agency, before the expiration of the period under section 1681i (a)(1) of this title within which the consumer reporting agency is required to complete actions required by that section regarding that information.
(c) Limitation on liability
Except as provided in section 1681s (c)(1)(B) of this title, sections 1681n and 1681o of this title do not apply to any violation of—
(1) subsection (a) of this section, including any regulations issued thereunder;
(2) subsection (e) of this section, except that nothing in this paragraph shall limit, expand, or otherwise affect liability under section 1681n or 1681o of this title, as applicable, for violations of subsection (b) of this section; or
(3) subsection (e) ofsection 1681m of this title.
(d) Limitation on enforcement
The provisions of law described in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (c) of this section (other than with respect to the exception described in paragraph (2) of subsection (c) of this section) shall be enforced exclusively as provided under section 1681s of this title by the Federal agencies and officials and the State officials identified in section 1681s of this title.
(e) Accuracy guidelines and regulations required
(1) Guidelines
The Bureau shall, with respect to persons or entities that are subject to the enforcement authority of the Bureau under section 1681s of this title—
(A) establish and maintain guidelines for use by each person that furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency regarding the accuracy and integrity of the information relating to consumers that such entities furnish to consumer reporting agencies, and update such guidelines as often as necessary; and
(B) prescribe regulations requiring each person that furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency to establish reasonable policies and procedures for implementing the guidelines established pursuant to subparagraph (A).
(2) Criteria
In developing the guidelines required by paragraph (1)(A), the Bureau shall—
(A) identify patterns, practices, and specific forms of activity that can compromise the accuracy and integrity of information furnished to consumer reporting agencies;
(B) review the methods (including technological means) used to furnish information relating to consumers to consumer reporting agencies;
(C) determine whether persons that furnish information to consumer reporting agencies maintain and enforce policies to ensure the accuracy and integrity of information furnished to consumer reporting agencies; and
(D) examine the policies and processes that persons that furnish information to consumer reporting agencies employ to conduct reinvestigations and correct inaccurate information relating to consumers that has been furnished to consumer reporting agencies.

Source

(Pub. L. 90–321, title VI, § 623, as added Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, § 2413(a)(2),Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–447; amended Pub. L. 108–159, title I, § 154(a), title II, § 217(a), title III, §§ 312(a)–(e)(1), 314(b), title IV, § 412(a),Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1966, 1986, 1989–1993, 1995, 2002; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, § 1088(a)(2)(D), (11),July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2087, 2090.)
Prior Provisions

A prior section 623 ofPub. L. 90–321was renumbered section 625 and is classified to section 1681t of this title.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(7)(D). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(11)(A), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which related to duty of Board to prescribe a model disclosure.
Subsec. (a)(8)(A). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(11)(B), which directed amendment of subpar. (A) by inserting “, in consultation with the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal banking agencies, and the National Credit Union Administration,” before “shall jointly”, was executed by making the insertion before “shall prescribe”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the amendment by Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(2)(D). See below.
Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(2)(D), substituted “The Bureau shall” for “The Federal banking agencies, the National Credit Union Administration, and the Commission shall jointly”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(11)(C), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which related to establishment and maintenance of accuracy guidelines and prescription of implementing regulations by the Federal banking agencies, the National Credit Union Administration, and the Commission.
2003—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(b)(1), substituted “knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the information is inaccurate” for “knows or consciously avoids knowing that the information is inaccurate”.
Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(b)(2), added subpar. (D).
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(d), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, inserted “date of delinquency on the account, which shall be the” before “month” and “on the account” before “that immediately preceded”, and added subpar. (B).
Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 108–159, § 154(a), added par. (6).
Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 108–159, § 217(a), added par. (7).
Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(c), added par. (8).
Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 108–159, § 412(a), added par. (9).
Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 108–159, § 314(b), added subpar. (E).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(e)(1), added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows: “Sections 1681n and 1681o of this title do not apply to any failure to comply with subsection (a) of this section, except as provided in section 1681s (c)(1)(B) of this title.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(e)(1), added subsec. (d) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (d). Text read as follows: “Subsection (a) of this section shall be enforced exclusively under section 1681s of this title by the Federal agencies and officials and the State officials identified in that section.”
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–159, § 312(a), added subsec. (e).
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–159subject to joint regulations establishing effective dates as prescribed by Federal Reserve Board and Federal Trade Commission, except as otherwise provided, see section 3 ofPub. L. 108–159, set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
Amendment by section 412(a) ofPub. L. 108–159effective at end of 15-month period beginning on Dec. 4, 2003, see section 412(g) ofPub. L. 108–159, set out as a note under section 1681b of this title.
Effective Date

Section effective 365 days after Sept. 30, 1996, with special rule for early compliance, see section 2420 ofPub. L. 104–208, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 1681a of this title.
Model Disclosure Form

Pub. L. 108–159, title II, § 217(b),Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1987, provided that: “Before the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2003], the Board shall adopt the model disclosure required under the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] after notice duly given in the Federal Register and an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code.”
[For definitions of terms used in section 217(b) ofPub. L. 108–159, set out above, see section 2 ofPub. L. 108–159, set out as a Definitions note under section 1681 of this title.]

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12 CFR - Banks and Banking

12 CFR Part 41 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING

12 CFR Part 171 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING

12 CFR Part 222 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V)

12 CFR Part 334 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING

12 CFR Part 571 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING

12 CFR Part 1022 - FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V)

14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 374 - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS

16 CFR - Commercial Practices

16 CFR Part 1 - GENERAL PROCEDURES

16 CFR Part 660 - DUTIES OF FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION TO CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES

 

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