26 U.S. Code § 1368 - Distributions

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(a) General rule
A distribution of property made by an S corporation with respect to its stock to which (but for this subsection) section 301 (c) would apply shall be treated in the manner provided in subsection (b) or (c), whichever applies.
(b) S corporation having no earnings and profits
In the case of a distribution described in subsection (a) by an S corporation which has no accumulated earnings and profits—
(1) Amount applied against basis
The distribution shall not be included in gross income to the extent that it does not exceed the adjusted basis of the stock.
(2) Amount in excess of basis
If the amount of the distribution exceeds the adjusted basis of the stock, such excess shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property.
(c) S corporation having earnings and profits
In the case of a distribution described in subsection (a) by an S corporation which has accumulated earnings and profits—
(1) Accumulated adjustments account
That portion of the distribution which does not exceed the accumulated adjustments account shall be treated in the manner provided by subsection (b).
(2) Dividend
That portion of the distribution which remains after the application of paragraph (1) shall be treated as a dividend to the extent it does not exceed the accumulated earnings and profits of the S corporation.
(3) Treatment of remainder
Any portion of the distribution remaining after the application of paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be treated in the manner provided by subsection (b).
Except to the extent provided in regulations, if the distributions during the taxable year exceed the amount in the accumulated adjustments account at the close of the taxable year, for purposes of this subsection, the balance of such account shall be allocated among such distributions in proportion to their respective sizes.
(d) Certain adjustments taken into account
Subsections (b) and (c) shall be applied by taking into account (to the extent proper)—
(1) the adjustments to the basis of the shareholder’s stock described in section 1367, and
(2) the adjustments to the accumulated adjustments account which are required by subsection (e)(1).
In the case of any distribution made during any taxable year, the adjusted basis of the stock shall be determined with regard to the adjustments provided in paragraph (1) of section 1367 (a) for the taxable year.
(e) Definitions and special rules
For purposes of this section—
(1) Accumulated adjustments account
(A) In general
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term “accumulated adjustments account” means an account of the S corporation which is adjusted for the S period in a manner similar to the adjustments under section 1367 (except that no adjustment shall be made for income (and related expenses) which is exempt from tax under this title and the phrase “(but not below zero)” shall be disregarded in section 1367 (a)(2)) and no adjustment shall be made for Federal taxes attributable to any taxable year in which the corporation was a C corporation.
(B) Amount of adjustment in the case of redemptions
In the case of any redemption which is treated as an exchange under section 302 (a) or 303 (a), the adjustment in the accumulated adjustments account shall be an amount which bears the same ratio to the balance in such account as the number of shares redeemed in such redemption bears to the number of shares of stock in the corporation immediately before such redemption.
(C) Net loss for year disregarded
(i) In general In applying this section to distributions made during any taxable year, the amount in the accumulated adjustments account as of the close of such taxable year shall be determined without regard to any net negative adjustment for such taxable year.
(ii) Net negative adjustment For purposes of clause (i), the term “net negative adjustment” means, with respect to any taxable year, the excess (if any) of—
(I) the reductions in the account for the taxable year (other than for distributions), over
(II) the increases in such account for such taxable year.
(2) S period
The term “S period” means the most recent continuous period during which the corporation has been an S corporation. Such period shall not include any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1983.
(3) Election to distribute earnings first
(A) In general
An S corporation may, with the consent of all of its affected shareholders, elect to have paragraph (1) of subsection (c) not apply to all distributions made during the taxable year for which the election is made.
(B) Affected shareholder
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “affected shareholder” means any shareholder to whom a distribution is made by the S corporation during the taxable year.
(f) Restricted bank director stock
If a director receives a distribution (not in part or full payment in exchange for stock) from an S corporation with respect to any restricted bank director stock (as defined in section 1361 (f)), the amount of such distribution—
(1) shall be includible in gross income of the director, and
(2) shall be deductible by the corporation for the taxable year of such corporation in which or with which ends the taxable year in which such amount in  [1] included in the gross income of the director.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “is”.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 97–354, § 2,Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1680; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 305(d)(2),Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, § 721(r),July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 970; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1879(m)(1)(B),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2910; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1309(a)(2)–(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, § 8232(b),May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 197.)
Amendments

2007—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–28added subsec. (f).
1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1309(a)(2), inserted at end “In the case of any distribution made during any taxable year, the adjusted basis of the stock shall be determined with regard to the adjustments provided in paragraph (1) of section 1367 (a) for the taxable year.”
Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1309(c), substituted “as otherwise provided in this paragraph” for “as provided in subparagraph (B)” and “section 1367 (a)(2)” for “section 1367 (b)(2)(A)”.
Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1309(b), added subpar. (C).
1986—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514inserted “and no adjustment shall be made for Federal taxes attributable to any taxable year in which the corporation was a C corporation” before period at end.
1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, § 721(r)(2), inserted “Except to the extent provided in regulations, if the distributions during the taxable year exceed the amount in the accumulated adjustments account at the close of the taxable year, for purposes of this subsection, the balance of such account shall be allocated among such distributions in proportion to their respective sizes.”
Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, § 721(r)(1), substituted “(except that no adjustment shall be made for income (and related expenses) which is exempt from tax under this title and the phrase ‘(but not below zero)’ shall be disregarded in section 1367 (b)(2)(A))” for “(except that no adjustment shall be made for income which is exempt from tax under this title and no adjustment shall be made for any expense not deductible in computing the corporation’s taxable income and not properly chargeable to capital account)”.
1983—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 97–448added par. (3).
Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, with special rule for treatment as second class of stock, see section 8232(c) ofPub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1317(a) ofPub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 641 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 1879(m)(2) ofPub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369effective as if included in the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–354, see section 721(y)(1) ofPub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.
Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 311(c)(4),Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2411, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (d) ofsection 305 [amending this section and sections 221, 1374, and 4975 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1361 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1361 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982 [Oct. 19, 1982].”
Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) ofPub. L. 97–354, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.
Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§ 1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§ 1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 ofPub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

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