33 U.S. Code § 2283 - Fish and wildlife mitigation

(a) Steps to be taken prior to or concurrently with construction
(1) In the case of any water resources project which is authorized to be constructed by the Secretary before, on, or after November 17, 1986, construction of which has not commenced as of November 17, 1986, and which necessitates the mitigation of fish and wildlife losses, including the acquisition of lands or interests in lands to mitigate losses to fish and wildlife, as a result of such project, such mitigation, including acquisition of the lands or interests—
(A) shall be undertaken or acquired before any construction of the project (other than such acquisition) commences, or
(B) shall be undertaken or acquired concurrently with lands and interests in lands for project purposes (other than mitigation of fish and wildlife losses),
whichever the Secretary determines is appropriate, except that any physical construction required for the purposes of mitigation may be undertaken concurrently with the physical construction of such project.
(2) For the purposes of this subsection, any project authorized before November 17, 1986, on which more than 50 percent of the land needed for the project, exclusive of mitigation lands, has been acquired shall be deemed to have commenced construction under this subsection.
(b) Acquisition of lands or interests in lands for mitigation
(1) After consultation with appropriate Federal and non-Federal agencies, the Secretary is authorized to mitigate damages to fish and wildlife resulting from any water resources project under his jurisdiction, whether completed, under construction, or to be constructed. Such mitigation may include the acquisition of lands, or interests therein, except that—
(A) acquisition under this paragraph shall not be by condemnation in the case of projects completed as of November 17, 1986, or on which at least 10 percent of the physical construction on the project has been completed as of November 17, 1986; and
(B) acquisition of water, or interests therein, under this paragraph, shall not be by condemnation.
The Secretary, shall, under the terms of this paragraph, obligate no more than $30,000,000 in any fiscal year. With respect to any water resources project, the authority under this subsection shall not apply to measures that cost more than $7,500,000 or 10 percent of the cost of the project, whichever is greater.
(2) Whenever, after his review, the Secretary determines that such mitigation features under this subsection are likely to require condemnation under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on such proposed modification, together with his recommendations.
(c) Allocation of mitigation costs
Costs incurred after November 17, 1986, including lands, easements, rights-of-way, and relocations, for implementation and operation, maintenance, and rehabilitation to mitigate damages to fish and wildlife shall be allocated among authorized project purposes in accordance with applicable cost allocation procedures, and shall be subject to cost sharing or reimbursement to the same extent as such other project costs are shared or reimbursed, except that when such costs are covered by contracts entered into prior to November 17, 1986, such costs shall not be recovered without the consent of the non-Federal interests or until such contracts are complied with or renegotiated.
(d) Mitigation plans as part of project proposals
(1) In general
After November 17, 1986, the Secretary shall not submit any proposal for the authorization of any water resources project to Congress in any report, and shall not select a project alternative in any report, unless such report contains
(A) a recommendation with a specific plan to mitigate fish and wildlife losses created by such project, or
(B) a determination by the Secretary that such project will have negligible adverse impact on fish and wildlife. Specific mitigation plans shall ensure that impacts to bottomland hardwood forests are mitigated in-kind, and other habitat types are mitigated to not less than in-kind conditions, to the extent possible. In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall consult with appropriate Federal and non-Federal agencies.
(2) Design of mitigation projects
The Secretary shall design mitigation projects to reflect contemporary understanding of the science of mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of water resources projects.
(3) Mitigation requirements
(A) In general
To mitigate losses to flood damage reduction capabilities and fish and wildlife resulting from a water resources project, the Secretary shall ensure that the mitigation plan for each water resources project complies with the mitigation standards and policies established pursuant to the regulatory programs administered by the Secretary.
(B) Inclusions
A specific mitigation plan for a water resources project under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum—
(i) a plan for monitoring the implementation and ecological success of each mitigation measure, including the cost and duration of any monitoring, and, to the extent practicable, a designation of the entities that will be responsible for the monitoring;
(ii) the criteria for ecological success by which the mitigation will be evaluated and determined to be successful based on replacement of lost functions and values of the habitat, including hydrologic and vegetative characteristics;
(iii) a description of the land and interests in land to be acquired for the mitigation plan and the basis for a determination that the land and interests are available for acquisition;
(iv) a description of—
(I) the types and amount of restoration activities to be conducted;
(II) the physical action to be undertaken to achieve the mitigation objectives within the watershed in which such losses occur and, in any case in which the mitigation will occur outside the watershed, a detailed explanation for undertaking the mitigation outside the watershed; and
(III) the functions and values that will result from the mitigation plan; and
(v) a contingency plan for taking corrective actions in cases in which monitoring demonstrates that mitigation measures are not achieving ecological success in accordance with criteria under clause (ii).
(C) Responsibility for monitoring
In any case in which it is not practicable to identify in a mitigation plan for a water resources project the entity responsible for monitoring at the time of a final report of the Chief of Engineers or other final decision document for the project, such entity shall be identified in the partnership agreement entered into with the non-Federal interest under section 1962d–5b of title 42.
(4) Determination of success
(A) In general
A mitigation plan under this subsection shall be considered to be successful at the time at which the criteria under paragraph (3)(B)(ii) are achieved under the plan, as determined by monitoring under paragraph (3)(B)(i).
(B) Consultation
In determining whether a mitigation plan is successful under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consult annually with appropriate Federal agencies and each State in which the applicable project is located on at least the following:
(i) The ecological success of the mitigation as of the date on which the report is submitted.
(ii) The likelihood that the mitigation will achieve ecological success, as defined in the mitigation plan.
(iii) The projected timeline for achieving that success.
(iv) Any recommendations for improving the likelihood of success.
(5) Monitoring
Mitigation monitoring shall continue until it has been demonstrated that the mitigation has met the ecological success criteria.
(e) First enhancement costs as Federal costs
In those cases when the Secretary, as part of any report to Congress, recommends activities to enhance fish and wildlife resources, the first costs of such enhancement shall be a Federal cost when—
(1) such enhancement provides benefits that are determined to be national, including benefits to species that are identified by the National Marine Fisheries Service as of national economic importance, species that are subject to treaties or international convention to which the United States is a party, and anadromous fish;
(2) such enhancement is designed to benefit species that have been listed as threatened or endangered by the Secretary of the Interior under the terms of the Endangered Species Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531, et seq.), or
(3) such activities are located on lands managed as a national wildlife refuge.
When benefits of enhancement do not qualify under the preceding sentence, 25 percent of such first costs of enhancement shall be provided by non-Federal interests under a schedule of reimbursement determined by the Secretary. Not more than 80 percent of the non-Federal share of such first costs may be satisfied through in-kind contributions, including facilities, supplies, and services that are necessary to carry out the enhancement project. The non-Federal share of operation, maintenance, and rehabilitation of activities to enhance fish and wildlife resources shall be 25 percent.
(f) National benefits from enhancement measures for Atchafalaya Floodway System and Mississippi Delta Region projects
Fish and wildlife enhancement measures carried out as part of the project for Atchafalaya Floodway System, Louisiana, authorized by Public Law 99–88, and the project for Mississippi Delta Region, Louisiana, authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1965, shall be considered to provide benefits that are national for purposes of this section.
(g) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act supplementation
The provisions of subsections (a), (b), and (d) of this section shall be deemed to supplement the responsibility and authority of the Secretary pursuant to the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act [16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.], and nothing in this section is intended to affect that Act.

Source

(Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, § 906,Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4186; Pub. L. 102–580, title III, § 333(a),Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4852; Pub. L. 106–53, title II, § 221,Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 295; Pub. L. 106–541, title II, § 224(a),Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2597; Pub. L. 110–114, title II, § 2036(a),Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1092.)
References in Text

The Endangered Species Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), probably means the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–205, Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 884, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§ 1531 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1531 of Title 16 and Tables.
Public Law 99–88, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 99–88, Aug. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 293, known as the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1985. Provisions of Pub. L. 99–88authorizing the project for the Atchafalaya Floodway System, Louisiana, are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
The Flood Control Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f), is title II of Pub. L. 89–298, Oct. 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1073. Provisions of that Act authorizing the project for Mississippi Delta Region, Louisiana, are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act referred to in subsec. (g), is act Mar. 10, 1934, ch. 55, 48 Stat. 401, as amended, which is classified generally to sections 661 to 666c of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 661 of Title 16 and Tables.
Amendments

2007—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–114, § 2036(a)(1), (2), substituted “to Congress in any report, and shall not select a project alternative in any report,” for “to the Congress” and inserted “, and other habitat types are mitigated to not less than in-kind conditions” after “mitigated in-kind”.
Subsec. (d)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 110–114, § 2036(a)(3), added pars. (3) to (5).
2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–541inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, realigned margins, substituted “November 17, 1986” for “the date of enactment of this Act”, redesignated former cls. (1) and (2) as (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).
1999—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–53inserted after second sentence “Not more than 80 percent of the non-Federal share of such first costs may be satisfied through in-kind contributions, including facilities, supplies, and services that are necessary to carry out the enhancement project.”
1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–580inserted “, including lands, easements, rights-of-way, and relocations,” before “for implementation and operation”.
Concurrent Mitigation

Pub. L. 106–541, title II, § 224(b),Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2598, provided that:
“(1) Investigation.—
“(A) In general.—The Comptroller General shall conduct an investigation of the effectiveness of the concurrent mitigation requirements of section 906 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (33 U.S.C. 2283). In carrying out the investigation, the Comptroller General shall determine—
“(i) whether or not there are instances in which less than 50 percent of required mitigation is completed before initiation of project construction and the number of such instances; and
“(ii) the extent to which mitigation projects restore natural hydrologic conditions, restore native vegetation, and otherwise support native fish and wildlife species.
“(B) Special rule.—In carrying out subparagraph (A)(ii), the Comptroller General shall—
“(i) establish a panel of independent scientists, comprised of individuals with expertise and experience in applicable scientific disciplines, to assist the Comptroller General; and
“(ii) assess methods used by the Corps of Engineers to monitor and evaluate mitigation projects, and compare Corps of Engineers mitigation project design, construction, monitoring, and evaluation practices with those used in other publicly and privately financed mitigation projects.
“(2) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 11, 2000], the Comptroller General shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the investigation.”

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33 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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