45 U.S. Code § 231c - Computation of spouse and survivor annuities

(a) Amount of spouses’ annuities; age
(1) The annuity of a spouse or divorced wife of an individual under section 231a (c) of this title shall be in an amount equal to the amount (before any reduction on account of age and before any deductions on account of work) of the wife’s insurance benefit or the husband’s insurance benefit to which such spouse or divorced wife would have been entitled under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] if such individual’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, had been included in the term “employment” as defined in that Act.
(2) For purposes of this subsection, a spouse entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this title shall be deemed to have attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 416 (l) [1] .
(3) If a spouse entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(1)(ii)(A), section 231a(c)(1)(ii)(C), or section 231a (c)(2) of this title or a divorced spouse entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(4) of this title on the basis of the employment record of an employee who will have completed less than 10 years of service is entitled to a benefit under section 202 (a), section 202(b), or section 202(c) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402 (a), (b), (c)] which began to accrue before the annuity under section 231a (c)(1)(ii)(A), section 231a(c)(1)(ii)(C), section 231a (c)(2), orsection 231a (c)(4) of this title, the annuity amount provided under this subsection shall be computed as though the annuity under this subchapter began to accrue on the later of
(A) the date on which the benefit under section 202 (a), section 202(b), or section 202(c) of the Social Security Act began or
(B) the first date on which the annuitant met the conditions for entitlement to an age reduced annuity under this subchapter other than the conditions set forth in sections 231a (e)(1) and 231a (e)(2) of this title and the requirement that an application be filed.
(b) Increases in spouses’ annuities in accordance with section 231b(b), (c), (d) of this title
The amount of the annuity of a spouse of an individual provided under subsection (a) of this section shall be increased by an amount equal to 45 per centum of that portion of the individual’s annuity as is computed under subsection (b) ofsection 231b of this title: Provided, however, That if the spouse is entitled to an annuity amount provided by subsection (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section, the amount of such spouse’s annuity provided by the preceding provisions of this subsection shall be reduced by the amount by which the amount computed in accordance with the provisions of clause (C) of subsection (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section was increased by the Social Security Amendments of 1965, 1967, and 1969, disregarding
(A) the amount of any such increase resulting from the Social Security Amendments of 1967 equal to, or less than, the excess of $5 over 5.8 per centum of the lesser of
(i) the amount computed under clause (C) of subsection (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section before any increases derived from legislation enacted after the Social Security Amendments of 1967 or
(ii) the amount of the spouse’s annuity to which such spouse would have been entitled under section 2(e) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228b (e)], without regard to section 3(a)(2) of that Act [45 U.S.C. 228c (a)(2)] or to increases derived from legislation enacted after 1968 and before any reduction on account of age, on the basis of the individual’s compensation and years of service prior to January 1, 1975, and
(B) the amount of any such increase resulting from the Social Security Amendments of 1969 equal to, or less than, $5: Provided further, That if the spouse is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title, the amount of the annuity of such spouse under this subsection shall, [2] be increased by an amount equal to the amount by which the amount of the annuity of such spouse provided under subsection (a) of this section was reduced by reason of the provisions of subsection (i)(2) of this section (disregarding, for this purpose, any increase in such reduction which becomes effective after the later of the date such spouse’s annuity under section 231a (c) of this title began to accrue or the date such spouse’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue). The Board shall have the authority to approximate the amount of any reduction prescribed by the first proviso of this subsection.
(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 107–90, title I, § 104(b),Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 882
(d) Increases in spouses’ annuities in accordance with section 231b(g) of this title
(1) That portion of the annuity of the spouse of an individual as is determined under subsection (b) and (c) of this section shall be increased by the same percentage, or percentages, as the individual’s annuity is, or has been, increased pursuant to the provisions of section 231b (g)(1) of this title.
(2) That portion of the annuity of the spouse of an individual as is determined under subsection (b) of this section prior to any determination under subsection (c) of this subsection  [3] shall, if the annuity of such spouse is not subject to reduction under subdivision (3) of this subsection, be reduced by an amount equal to 50 per centum of the dollar amount by which the annuity of the individual was reduced under section 231b (g)(2) of this title. In no case shall the reduction by reason of this paragraph operate to reduce such portion to an amount less than $10.
(3) The first and, if necessary, the following time or times after January 1, 1983, that monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased, that portion of the annuity of the spouse of an individual as is determined under subsections (b), (c), and (d)(1) of this section shall, if such spouse’s annuity under section 231a (c) of this title began to accrue in or before the year in which such first increase under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] became effective, be reduced by the dollar amount by which that portion of the annuity provided such spouse under subsection (a) of this section was increased, after any reduction under subsection (i) of this section, as a result of such increase or increases under the Social Security Act until the total dollar amount of such reduction or reductions equals 5 per centum of the annuity amount provided such spouse under subsection (a) of this section, as reduced under subsection (i) of this section, prior to such first increase. In no case shall the reduction by reason of this paragraph operate to reduce such portion to an amount less than $10.
(e) Increases in particular spouses’ annuities
(1) The amount of the annuity of the spouse of an individual determined under subsections (a) and (b) of this section, if
(A) such individual will have
(i) rendered service as an employee to an employer, or as an employee representative, during the calendar year 1974, or
(ii) had a current connection with the railroad industry on December 31, 1974, or at the time his annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue, or
(iii) completed twenty-five years of service prior to January 1, 1975, and
(B) such individual will have completed ten years of service prior to January 1, 1975, and such spouse will have been permanently insured under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] on December 31, 1974, shall be increased by an amount equal to the smaller of
(C) the primary insurance amount to which such spouse would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under the provisions of the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, on the basis of her or his wages and self-employment income derived from employment and self-employment under that Act prior to January 1, 1975, or
(D) the wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit to which such spouse would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under the provisions of the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, if such individual’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, and prior to January 1, 1975, were included in the term “employment” as defined in that Act, if such individual had no wages or self-employment income under the Act other than wages derived from such service as an employee, and if such spouse were entitled to no other benefit under that Act: Provided, however, That the increase under the provisions of this subdivision shall not be less than 50 per centum of the portion of the annuity, if any, of such individual determined under the provisions of section 231b (h)(1) of this title prior to any increases under the provisions of section 231b (h)(5) of this title.
(2) The amount of the annuity of the spouse of an individual determined under subsections (a) and (b) of this section, if
(A) such individual will not have met the conditions set forth in subclause (i), (ii), or (iii) of clause (A) of subdivision (1) of this subsection, but
(B) such individual will have completed ten years of service prior to January 1, 1975, and such spouse will have been permanently insured under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] as of December 31 of the calendar year prior to 1975 in which such individual last rendered service as an employee, shall be increased by an amount equal to the smaller of
(C) the primary insurance amount to which such spouse would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65,under the provisions of the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, on the basis of his or her wages and self-employment income derived from employment and self-employment under that Act as of December 31 of the calendar year prior to 1975 in which such individual last rendered service as an employee or
(D) the wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit to which such spouse would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under the provisions of the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, if such individual’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, and prior to January 1, 1975, were included in the term “employment” as defined in that Act, if such individual had no wages or self-employment income under that Act other than wages derived from such service as an employee, and if such spouse were entitled to no other benefit under that Act: Provided, however, That the increase under the provisions of this subdivision shall not be less than 50 per centum of the portion of the annuity, if any, of such individual determined under the provisions of section 231b (h)(2) of this title prior to any increases under the provisions of section 231b (h)(5) of this title.
(3) The amount of the annuity of the spouse of an individual determined under subsections (a) and (b) of this section, if
(A) such individual is entitled to an amount determined under the provisions of section 231b (h)(1) or 231b (h)(2) of this title and
(B) such spouse is not entitled to an amount determined under the provisions of subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection, shall be increased by an amount equal to 50 per centum of the portion of the annuity of such individual determined under the provisions of section 231b (h)(1) or 231b (h)(2) of this title prior to any increases under the provisions of section 231b (h)(5) of this title.
(4) The amount determined under the provisions of subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection shall be increased by the same percentage or percentages, as wife’s and husband’s insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased, or would have been increased had there been no general benefit increases under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], pursuant to the automatic cost-of-living provisions of section 215(i) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 415 (i)], during the period from January 1, 1975, to the earlier of the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or January 1, 1982.
(5) No amount shall be payable to a person under subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection unless the entitlement of such person to such amount had been determined prior to August 13, 1981.
(f) Amount of survivors’ annuities; age; entitlement
(1) The annuity of a survivor of a deceased employee under section 231a (d) of this title shall be in an amount equal to the amount (before any deductions on account of work) of the widow’s insurance benefit, widower’s insurance benefit, mother’s insurance benefit, parent’s insurance benefit, or child’s insurance benefit, whichever is applicable, to which he or she would have been entitled under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] if such deceased employee’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, had been included in the term “employment” as defined in that Act. In the case of a widow or widower who is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d) of this title solely on the basis of railroad service which was performed prior to January 1, 1937, the amount provided under this section with respect to any month shall not be less than the first amount appearing in column IV of the table appearing in section 215(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 415 (a)] as in effect on December 31, 1974, after reduction in accordance with the provisions of section 202(k) and 202(q) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 402 (k), (q)] in the same manner as would be applicable to a widow’s insurance benefit or widower’s insurance benefit payable under section 202(e) or 202(f) of that Act.
(2) For purposes of this subsection—
(i) a widow or widower or a parent who is entitled to an annuity based on age under section 231a (d)(1) of this title and who has not attained age 62 shall be deemed to be age 62: Provided, however, That the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of a widow or widower who was entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of disability for the month before the month in which he or she attained age 60,
(ii) a widow or widower or a child who is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of disability shall be deemed to be entitled to a widow’s insurance benefit, a widower’s insurance benefit, or a child’s insurance benefit under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] on the basis of disability, and
(iii) The  [4] provisions of paragraphs (i) and (ii) of this subdivision shall not apply to the annuity of a widow, surviving divorced wife, or surviving divorced mother who is entitled to such annuity on the basis of the provisions of section 231a (d)(1)(v) of this title.
(3) The annuity amount provided to a widow or widower under last sentence of subdivision (1) shall be increased by the same percentage or percentages as insurance benefits payable under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased after the date on which such annuity begins to accrue.
(g) Increases in survivor’s annuities in accordance with subsection (f)
(1) The amount of the annuity provided under subsection (f)(1) of this section (other than the last sentence thereof) for a survivor of a deceased individual shall be increased by an amount equal to the appropriate one of the following percentages of that portion of the annuity computed under section 231b (b) of this title, before any reduction on account of age and without regard to any reduction under section 231b (g)(2) of this title, to which such deceased individual would have been entitled for the month such survivor’s annuity under section 231a (d) of this title began to accrue if such individual were living (deeming for this purpose that if such individual died before becoming entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title, such individual became entitled to an annuity under subdivision (i) of such section 231a (a)(1) of this title in the month in which such individual died):
(i) In the case of a widow or widower, the increase shall be equal to 50 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity, but the amount of the annuity so determined shall be subject to reduction on account of age in the same manner as is applicable to the annuity amount determined for the widow or widower under subsection (f) of this section and shall be subject to increase as provided in subdivision (4) of this subsection.
(ii) In the case of a parent, the increase shall be equal to 35 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity.
(iii) In the case of a child, the increase shall be equal to 15 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity.
(2) Whenever the total amount of the increases based on the deceased individual’s portion of the annuity under section 231b (b) of this title as determined under subdivision (1) of this subsection for all survivors of a deceased employee is—
(i) less than an amount equal to 35 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity, the total increase shall, before any deductions under section 231a (g) of this title, be increased proportionately until the total increase is equal to 35 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity; or
(ii) more than an amount equal to 80 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity, the total increase shall, before any deductions under section 231a (g) of this title and before any reduction on account of age, be reduced proportionately until the total increase is equal to 80 per centum of such portion of the deceased individual’s annuity.
(3) An annuity determined under this subsection for a month prior to the month in which application is filed, shall be reduced to any extent that may be necessary so that it will not render erroneous any annuity which, before the filing of such application, the Board has certified for payment for such prior month.
(4) If a widow or widower of a deceased employee is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title and if either such widow or widower or such deceased employee will have completed 10 years of service prior to January 1, 1975, the amount of the annuity of such widow or widower under subdivisions (1) through (3) of this subsection shall be increased by an amount equal to the amount, if any, by which (A) the widow’s or widower’s insurance annuity to which such widow or widower would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under section 5(a) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e (a)] as in effect on December 31, 1974 (without regard to the proviso of that section or the first proviso of section 3(e) of that Act [45 U.S.C. 228c (e)] on the basis of the deceased employee’s remuneration and service prior to January 1, 1975, increased by the same percentage, or percentages, as widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased during the period from January 1, 1975, to the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue, exceeds (B) the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower was entitled (after any reductions pursuant to subsection (i)(2) of this section but before any deductions on account of work) under the preceding provisions of this subsection, subsection (f) of this section, and the amount determined under subsection (h) of this section, before the proviso, as of the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue. If a widow or widower of a deceased employee is not entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title or to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the amount of the annuity to which such widow or widower is entitled under this subsection shall not be less than an amount which would cause the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower is entitled (before any deductions on account of work) under this subsection and subsection (f)(1) of this section to equal the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower was entitled (or would have been entitled except for the provisions of sections 231a (e) and 231a (f) of this title) as a spouse under subsections (a), (b), and (e) of this section (after any reduction on account of age) in the month preceding the employee’s death. If a widow or widower of a deceased employee is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title or to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act, the amount of the annuity to which such widow or widower is entitled under this subsection shall not be less than an amount which would cause (A) the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower is entitled (after any reductions pursuant to section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act or subsection (i)(2) of this section but before any deductions on account of work) under this subsection and subsection (f) of this section to equal (B)(i) the total of the annuity amounts, if any, to which such widow or widower was entitled (or would have been entitled except for the provisions of sections 231a (e) and 231a (f) of this title) as a spouse under subsections (a), (b), and (e) of this section (after any reduction on account of age) in the month preceding the employee’s death less (ii), if such widow or widower is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act but was not entitled to such a benefit in the month preceding the employee’s death, the amount by which the annuity amount payable under subsection (a) of this section to such widow or widower as a spouse in the month preceding the employee’s death would have been reduced by reason of section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act if such widow or widower had been entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act in the month preceding the employee’s death in an amount equal to the amount of such benefit at the time such benefit first began to accrue to such widow or widower.
(5) This subsection shall not apply to the annuity of a widow, surviving divorced wife, or surviving divorced mother who is entitled to such annuity on the basis of the provisions of section 231a (d)(1)(v) of this title.
(6) That portion of the annuity of a survivor of an individual determined under subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be increased whenever, and by the same percentage or percentages as, the annuity of the individual would have been increased pursuant to section 231b (g)(1) of this title if such individual were still living.
(7) The first and, if necessary, the following time or times after January 1, 1983, that monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased, that portion of the annuity of a survivor of a deceased individual as is determined under subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, or under this subsection as in effect before amendment by section 1119(g) ofPublic Law 97–35, shall, if such survivor’s annuity under section 231a (d) of this title began to accrue before the effective date of such first increase under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], be reduced by the dollar amount by which that portion of the annuity provided such survivor under subsection (f) of this section was increased, after any reduction under subsection (i) of this section, as a result of such increase or increases under the Social Security Act until the total dollar amount of such reduction or reductions equals 5 per centum of the annuity amount provided such survivor under subsection (f) of this section, as reduced under subsection (i) of this section, prior to such first increase. In no case shall the reduction by reason of this paragraph operate to reduce such portion to an amount less than $10.
(8) That portion of the annuity of a survivor of a deceased individual as is determined under subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection shall, if the annuity of such survivor is not subject to reduction under subdivision (7) of this subsection, be reduced by an amount equal to the dollar amount by which the annuity of the deceased individual was reduced under section 231b (g)(2) of this title or would have been reduced under such section 231b (g)(2) of this title if such deceased individual had been living at the time such survivor’s annuity under section 231a (d) of this title began to accrue (deeming for this purpose, if such individual died before becoming entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title, that such individual became entitled to an annuity under paragraph (i) of such section 231a (a)(1) of this title in the month in which such individual died). In a case where the survivor of a deceased individual is not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the reduction provided by the preceding sentence of this subdivision shall be equal to the dollar amount by which the annuity of the deceased individual would have been reduced under section 231b (g)(2) of this title if the annuity of such deceased individual had not been subject to reduction under section 231b (m) of this title. In no case shall the reduction by reason of this paragraph operate to reduce such portion to an amount less than $10.
(9) That portion of the annuity of a survivor of a deceased individual as is determined under this subsection as in effect before amendment by section 1119(g) ofPublic Law 97–35 shall, if the annuity of such survivor is not subject to reduction under subdivision (7) of this subsection, be reduced by an amount equal to the dollar amount by which the annuity of the deceased individual was reduced under section 231b (g)(2) of this title or, if such survivor is not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], would have been reduced under such section 231b (g)(2) of this title if the annuity of such deceased individual had not been subject to reduction under section 231b (m) of this title. In no case shall the reduction by reason of this paragraph operate to reduce such portion to an amount less than $10.
(10)
(i) If for any month the unreduced annuity provided under this section for a widow or widower is less than the widow’s or widower’s initial minimum amount computed pursuant to paragraph (ii) of this subdivision, the unreduced annuity shall be increased to that initial minimum amount. For the purposes of this subdivision, the unreduced annuity is the annuity without regard to any deduction on account of work, without regard to any reduction for entitlement to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title, without regard to any reduction for entitlement to a benefit under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], and without regard to any reduction for entitlement to a public service pension pursuant to section 202(e)(7), 202(f)(2), or 202(g)(4) of the Social Security Act. [5]
(ii) For the purposes of this subdivision, the widow or widower’s initial minimum amount is the amount of the unreduced annuity computed at the time an annuity is awarded to that widow or widower, except that—
(A) in subsection (g)(1)(i) of this section “100 per centum” shall be substituted for “50 per centum”; and
(B) in subsection (g)(2)(ii) of this section “130 per centum” shall be substituted for “80 per centum” both places it appears.
(iii) If a widow or widower who was previously entitled to a widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1)(ii) of this title becomes entitled to a widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1)(i) of this title, a new initial minimum amount shall be computed at the time of award of the widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1)(i) of this title.
(h) Increases in particular widows’ and widowers’ annuities
(1) The amount of the annuity of the widow or widower of a deceased employee determined under subsections (f) and (g) of this section, if such deceased employee will have completed ten years of service prior to January 1, 1975, and such widow or widower will have been permanently insured under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] of  [6] December 31, 1974, shall be increased by an amount equal to the amount, if any, by which
(A) the widow’s or widower’s insurance annuity to which such widow or widower would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under section 5(a) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e (a)] as in effect on December 31, 1974 (without regard to the proviso of that section or the first proviso of section 3(e) of that Act [45 U.S.C. 228c (e)]), on the basis of the deceased employee’s remuneration and service prior to January 1, 1975, increased by the same percentage, or percentages, as widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402] are increased during the period from January 1, 1975, to January 1, 1982 or, if earlier, to the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date beginning the first month for which such widow or widower is entitled to an old age insurance benefit or disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act, exceeds
(B) the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower was entitled (after any reductions pursuant to section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act and subsection (i)(2) of this section but before any deductions on account of work) under subsections (f) and (g) of this section as to the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date beginning the first month for which such widow or widower is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or disability insurance benefit under the Social Security Act: Provided, however, That, if a widow or widower was entitled (or would have been entitled except for the provisions of section 231a (e) or 231a (f) of this title) to an annuity amount under subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (e) of this section in the month preceding the employee’s death, the amount of the annuity to which such widow or widower is entitled under this subsection shall not be less than an amount which would cause
(A) the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower is entitled (after any reductions pursuant to section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act but before any deductions on account of work) under subsections (f) and (g) of this section and the preceding provisions of this subsection as of the date such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue to equal
(B) the total of the annuity amounts to which such widow or widower was entitled (or would have been entitled except for the provisions of section 231a (e) or 231a (f) of this title) as a spouse under subsections (a), (b), and (e) of this section (after any reductions on account of age) in the month preceding the employee’s death.
(2) Subdivision (1) of this subsection shall not apply to the annuity of a widow, surviving divorced wife, or surviving divorced mother who is entitled to such annuity on the basis of the provisions of section 231a (d)(1)(v) of this title. No amount shall be payable to a person under subdivision (1) of this subsection unless the entitlement of such person to such amount had been determined prior to August 13, 1981.
(i) Reductions in survivors’ annuities
(1) The annuity of any spouse or divorced wife under subsection (a) of this section for any month shall, after a reduction pursuant to section 231a (c)(2) of this title be reduced, but not below zero, by the amount of any insurance benefit (before any deduction on account of work) payable to such spouse or divorced wife for that month under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.].
(2) If a spouse or divorced wife entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c) of this title or a survivor entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d) of this title for any month is also entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title for such month, the annuity amount of such spouse or divorced wife determined under subsection (a) of this section or of such survivor under subsection (f) of this section shall, after any reduction pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection, be reduced by the amount of the annuity of such spouse or divorced wife or such survivor determined under section 231b (a) of this title.
(3) The annuity of any survivor under subsection (f) of this section shall be reduced, but not below zero, by the amount of any insurance benefit (before any deduction on account of work) payable to such survivor under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], unless in computing the amount under subsection (f) of this section a reduction was made for such insurance benefit pursuant to section 202(k) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402 (k)].


[1]  So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

[2]  So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

[3]  So in original. Probably should be “section”.

[4]  So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

[5]  See References in Text note below.

[6]  So in original. Probably should be “on”.

Source

(Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, § 4, as restated June 24, 1937, ch. 382, pt. I; 50 Stat. 307, as restated Pub. L. 93–445, title I, § 101,Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 94–547, § 2(a), (b),Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 97–35, title XI, §  1119, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 632; Pub. L. 98–76, title I, §§ 101(b), 102 (b), (c), 106 (h), title IV, §§ 406(a), 407(a),Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 411, 413, 414, 418, 435; Pub. L. 107–90, title I, §§ 101(a), 102 (b), (c), 103 (e), 104 (b),Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 878, 879, 881, 882.)
References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (d)(3), (e)(1), (2), (4), (f)(1), (2)(ii), (g)(4), (7) to (10), (h)(1), and (i)(1), (3), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§ 301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. Sections 202(e)(7), 202(f)(2), and 202(g)(4) of the Act probably mean subsecs. (e)(7), (f)(2), and (g)(4) ofsection 202 of the Act as classified to subsecs. (e)(7), (f)(2), and (g)(4) ofsection 402 of Title 42, respectively, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, § 418(b)(3)(B), (4)(A)(i), (5)(B),Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 532, 533. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
The Social Security Amendments of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 89–97, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 286, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
The Social Security Amendments of 1967, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 90–248, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 821, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Amendment note set out under section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
The Social Security Amendments of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b), is title X of Pub. L. 91–172, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 737, as amended, which amended sections 401, 402, 403, 415, 427, and 428 of Title 42, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 402, 403, 415, and 427 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1969 Amendment note set out under section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
Sections 2, 3, and 5 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, referred to in subsecs. (b), (g)(4), and (h)(1), which were classified to sections 228b, 228c, and 228e of this title, have been omitted from the Code.
Section 1119(g) ofPublic Law 97–35, referred to in subsec. (g)(7), (9), amended subsec. (g) of this section generally. See 1981 Amendment note below.
Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–90, § 102(b), substituted “a spouse entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this title” for “if an individual is entitled to an annuity under paragraph (ii) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title which did not begin to accrue before such individual attained age 62, the spouse of such individual entitled to annuity under clause (B) of paragraph (ii) of section 231a (c)(1) of this title”.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–90, § 103(e), added par. (3).
Pub. L. 107–90, § 102(c), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “In the case of an individual entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1)(ii) of this title which began to accrue before such individual attained age 62, the annuity of the spouse of such individual under section 231a (c) of this title shall, in lieu of an annuity amount provided under subdivision (1), be in an amount equal to—
“(i) for each month prior to the first month throughout which both the individual and the spouse are age 62, 50 per centum of that portion of the individual’s annuity as is, or was prior to such individual’s attaining age 62, computed under section 231b (a)(3)(i) of this title, reduced to the same extent such amount would be reduced under section 202(b)(4) of the Social Security Act (in the case of a wife) or under section 202(c)(2) of the Social Security Act (in the case of a husband) as if such amount were a wife’s insurance benefit or a husband’s insurance benefit, respectively, under such Act; and
“(ii) for months beginning with the first month throughout which both the individual and the spouse are age 62, the amount (after any reduction on account of age based on the spouse’s age at the time the amount under this paragraph first becomes payable but before any deductions on account of work) of the wife’s insurance benefit or the husband’s insurance benefit to which such spouse would have been entitled under the Social Security Act if the individual’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, had been included in the term ‘employment’ as defined in that Act.”
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–90, § 102(c), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “In the case of an individual entitled to an annuity under paragraph (iv) or (v) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title, the annuity of the spouse of such individual entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this title shall, in lieu of an annuity amount provided under subdivision (1), be in an amount equal to the amount (after any reduction on account of age but before any deductions on account of work) of the wife’s insurance benefit or the husband’s insurance benefit to which such spouse would have been entitled under the Social Security Act if the individual’s service as an employee after December 31, 1936, had been included in the term ‘employment’ as defined in that Act. For purposes of this subdivision, spouses who have not attained age 62 shall be deemed to have attained age 62.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–90, § 104(b), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “If (A) the total amount of the annuity of a spouse of an individual as computed under the preceding subsections of this section as of the date on which the annuity of such individual under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue (before any reduction due to such spouse’s entitlement to a monthly insurance benefit under the Social Security Act) plus (B) the total amount of the annuity and supplemental annuity of the individual (before any reduction due to such individual’s entitlement to a monthly insurance benefit under the Social Security Act) subject to the provisions of section 231b (f)(1) of this title would, before any reductions in the amounts specified in clauses (A) and (B) on account of age and disregarding any increases in such amounts which become effective after the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue, exceed the amount determined under clauses (A) and (B) of section 231b (f)(1) of this title, the portion of the annuity of such spouse determined under subsection (b) of this section as of the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue shall be reduced until the sum of the amounts specified in clauses (A) and (B) of this subsection equals the amount determined under clauses (A) and (B) of section 231b (f)(1) of this title or until such amount under subsection (b) of this section is reduced to zero, whichever occurs first. If, after such amount under subsection (b) of this section is reduced to zero, the sum of the remaining amounts specified in clauses (A) and (B) of this subsection still exceeds the amount determined under clauses (A) and (B) of section 231b (f)(1) of this title, the supplemental annuity of the individual first, and then, if necessary, the annuity amount of the individual computed under subsections (b), (c), and (d) ofsection 231b of this title as of the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue, shall be reduced until the amounts specified in clauses (A) and (B) of this subsection equals the amount determined under clauses (A) and (B) of section 231b (f)(1) of this title or until such supplemental annuity and such annuity amount are reduced to zero, whichever occurs first. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, the provisions of this subsection shall not operate to reduce the total of the amounts specified in clauses (A) and (B) of this subsection below $1,200.”
Subsec. (g)(10). Pub. L. 107–90, § 101(a), added par. (10).
1983—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–76, § 106(h), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act” for “age 65”.
Pub. L. 98–76, § 101(b)(1), substituted “if an individual is entitled to an annuity under paragraph (ii) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title which did not begin to accrue before such individual attained age 62, the spouse of such individual” for “spouses”.
Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–76, § 101(b)(2), added pars. (3) and (4).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–76, § 102(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “231b(g)(1)” for “231b(g)”, and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–76, § 102(c)(1), inserted “and without regard to any reduction under section 231b (g)(2) of this title”.
Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 98–76, § 406(a), substituted “subsections (a), (b), and (e)” for “subsections (a), (b), and (e)(3)”.
Subsec. (g)(6). Pub. L. 98–76, § 102(c)(2), substituted “231b(g)(1)” for “231b(g)”.
Subsec. (g)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 98–76, § 102(c)(3), added pars. (7) to (9).
Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 98–76, § 407(a), added par. (3).
1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(a), substituted “spouse or divorced wife” for “spouse” in two places.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(b)(1), substituted “subsection (b)” for “subsections (b), (c) and (d)”.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(b)(2), substituted “45 per centum” for “50 per centum”.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(b)(3), struck out third proviso which provided that if the total of (A) the amount of the spouse’s annuity provided under subsec. (a) of this section (before any reduction due to such spouse’s entitlement to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit under the Social Security Act), or, in the case of a spouse entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title or to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under section 202 or 223 of the Social Security Act, the amount to which such spouse would be entitled under subsec. (a) of this section if she or he were not entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title or to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under section 202 or 223 of the Social Security Act, plus (B) the amount of her or his annuity under this subsection would, with respect to any month, before any reductions on account of age, exceed 110 per centum of an amount equal to the maximum amount which could be paid to any one, with respect to such month, as a wife’s insurance benefit under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act, the amount of the annuity of such spouse under this subsection shall be reduced until the total of such annuity amounts equals 110 per centum of such amount.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(b)(4), struck out reference to third proviso in second proviso.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(b)(5), inserted “(disregarding, for this purpose, any increase in such reduction which becomes effective after the later of the date such spouse’s annuity under section 231a (c) of this title began to accrue or the date such spouse’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue)”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(c), substituted “spouse’s entitlement to a monthly insurance benefit” for “spouse’s entitlement to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit”.
Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(d)(1), substituted “to the earlier of the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or January 1, 1982” for “to the date on which the individual’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue”.
Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(d)(2), added subdiv. (5).
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(e)(1), inserted provision that in the case of a widow or widower who is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d) of this title solely on the basis of railroad service which was performed prior to Jan. 1, 1937, the amount provided under this section with respect to any month shall not be less than the first amount appearing in column IV of the table appearing in section 215(a) of the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, after reduction in accordance with the provisions of section 202(k) and 202(q) of that Act in the same manner as would be applicable to a widow‘s insurance benefit or widower’s insurance benefit payable under section 202(e) or 202(f) of that Act.
Subsec. (f)(2)(iii). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(f), added par. (iii).
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(e)(2), added subdiv. (3).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(g), revised windfall component in computation of survivor annuity benefits and substituted provisions fixing windfall component equal to 50 per centum of employee’s windfall component which would be payable to employee if he were living, 15 per centum for children, parents 35 per centum, with family minimum of 35 per centum and family maximum of 80 per centum, for provisions fixing such component equal to 30 per centum of the social security level widow’s or widower’s annuity which would be payable to such survivor if railroad service were covered by the Social Security Act, and clarified that divorced wives, remarried widows, and surviving divorced mothers do not receive a windfall amount.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(h)(1), (4), designated existing provisions as subdiv. (1) and added subdiv. (2).
Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(h)(2), substituted “during the period from January 1, 1975, to January 1, 1982 or, if earlier, to” for “during the period from January 1, 1975”.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(h)(3), substituted “pursuant to section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act and subsection (i)(2) of this section” for “pursuant to section 202(k) or 202(q) of the Social Security Act”.
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(i)(1), substituted “spouse or divorced wife” for “spouse” in two places.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(i)(2), inserted “, after a reduction pursuant to section 231a (c)(2) of this title” after “for any month shall”.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(i)(3), struck out “wife’s or husband’s” before “insurance benefit”.
Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(i)(4), inserted “(before any deduction on account of work)” after “insurance benefit”.
Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, § 1119(i)(1), substituted “spouse or divorced wife” for “spouse” in three places.
1976—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–547, § 2(a), inserted references to spouses under subsection (e)(3) of this section in two places and inserted proviso that if a widow or widower of a deceased employee is entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title and if either such widow or widower of such deceased employee completed ten years of service prior to Jan. 1, 1975, the amount of the annuity of such widow or widower under the preceding provisions of this subsection would be increased by an amount equal to the amount, if any, by which (A) the widow’s or widower’s insurance annuity to which such widow or widower would have been entitled, upon attaining age 65, under section 5(a) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 as in effect on Dec. 31, 1974 (without regard to the proviso of that section or the first proviso of section 3(e) of that Act), on the basis of the deceased employee’s remuneration and service prior to Jan. 1, 1975, increased by the same percentage, or percentages, as widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act are increased during the period from Jan. 1, 1975, to the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue, exceeds (B) the total of the annuity amounts to which the widow or widower was entitled (after any reductions pursuant to subsection (i)(2) of this section but before any deductions on account of work) under subsec. (f) of the section and the preceding provisions of this subsection as of the later of the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (a)(1) of this title began to accrue or the date on which such widow’s or widower’s annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title began to accrue.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 94–547, § 2(b), revised the benefit formula by providing that the additional benefit amount for the widows and widowers in question be equal to the difference between (A) the amount of the widow’s or widower’s insurance annuity which would have been payable under the 1937 Act railroad retirement formula on the basis of the deceased employee’s remuneration and service prior to 1975, with this amount being increased by the percentages of benefit increases occurring during the period from Jan. 1, 1975, to the date on which the widow’s or widower’s survivor annuity or social security benefit, whichever is awarded latest, begins, and (B) the total amount of the two survivor annuity components payable to the widow or widower under this subchapter, after reduction due to the receipt of a social security benefit, as of the time the widow’s or widower’s survivor annuity or social security benefit, whichever is awarded latest, begins, with a proviso to assure that, where the widow or widower had been receiving a “windfall” dual benefit as a spouse under this subchapter, the total annuity amounts, including dual benefit amounts, payable to that widow or widower will not be less than the annuity amounts, again including dual benefit amounts, which the widow or widower received as a spouse in the month preceding the employee’s death.
Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–90, title I, § 101(b),Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 879, provided that:
“(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the first month that begins more than 30 days after enactment [Dec. 21, 2001], and shall apply to annuity amounts accruing for months after the effective date in the case of annuities awarded—
“(A) on or after that date; and
“(B) before that date, but only if the annuity amount under section 4(g) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (45 U.S.C. 231c (g)) was computed under such section, as amended by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97–35; 95 Stat. 357).
“(2) Special rule for annuities awarded before the effective date.—In applying the amendment made by this section to annuities awarded before the effective date, the calculation of the initial minimum amount under new section 4(g)(10)(ii) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (45 U.S.C. 231c (g)(10)(ii)), as added by subsection (a), shall be made as of the date of the award of the widow’s or widower’s annuity.”
Pub. L. 107–90, title I, § 102(d),Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 879, provided that:
“(1) Generally.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 231b of this title] shall apply to annuities that begin to accrue on or after January 1, 2002.
“(2) Exception.—The amount of the annuity provided for a spouse under section 4(a) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (45 U.S.C. 231c (a)) shall be computed under section 4(a)(3) of such Act, as in effect on December 31, 2001, if the annuity amount provided under section 3(a) of such Act (45 U.S.C. 231b (a)) for the individual on whose employment record the spouse annuity is based was computed under section 3(a)(3) of such Act, as in effect on December 31, 2001.”
Amendment by section 103(e) ofPub. L. 107–90effective Jan. 1, 2002, see section 103(j) ofPub. L. 107–90, set out as a note under section 405 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
Amendment by section 104(b) ofPub. L. 107–90effective Jan. 1, 2002, and applicable to annuity amounts accruing for months after Dec. 2001, see section 104(c) ofPub. L. 107–90, set out as a note under section 231b of this title.
Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) ofPub. L. 98–76effective July 1, 1984, and applicable only with respect to awards in certain specified cases, see section 101(c) ofPub. L. 98–76, set out as a note under section 231b of this title.
Amendment by section 102(b), (c) ofPub. L. 98–76effective Aug. 12, 1983, see section 102(d) ofPub. L. 98–76, set out as a note under section 231b of this title.
Amendment by section 106(h) ofPub. L. 98–76effective Aug. 12, 1983, except such amendment inapplicable to certain annuity amounts, see section 106(k) ofPub. L. 98–76, set out as a note under section 231a of this title.
Pub. L. 98–76, title IV, § 406(b),Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 435, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective October 1, 1981.”
Pub. L. 98–76, title IV, § 407(b),Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 435, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to annuities awarded on and after the date of enactment [Aug. 12, 1983].”
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 1119(b)(5), (c), (h)(3), (i)(3) ofPub. L. 97–35effective Jan. 1, 1975, amendment by section 1119(b)(1) ofPub. L. 97–35not to apply with respect to annuities awarded before Oct. 1, 1981, amendment by section 1119(d)(2), (h)(1), (4) ofPub. L. 97–35effective Aug. 13, 1981, amendment by section 1119(i)(4) ofPub. L. 97–35effective Jan. 1, 1982, and amendment by other provisions of section 1119 ofPub. L. 97–35effective Oct. 1, 1981, and applicable only with respect to annuities awarded on or after Oct. 1, 1981, see section 1129 ofPub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 231 of this title.
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–547, § 2(c),Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2525, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to annuities accruing for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [October, 1976]: Provided, however, That the amendments made by subsection (b) of this section [amending this section] shall not operate to decrease any annuity amounts awarded under section 4(h) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [subsec. (h) of this section] prior to the date on which these amendments become effective.”

 

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