21 U.S. Code § 841 - Prohibited acts A

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(a) Unlawful acts
Except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally—
(1) to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance; or
(2) to create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.
(b) Penalties
Except as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:
(1)
(A) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—
(i) 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;
(ii) 5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—
(I) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;
(II) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;
(III) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or
(IV) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);
(iii) 280 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;
(iv) 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);
(v) 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);
(vi) 400 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- [ 1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;
(vii) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or
(viii) 50 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;
such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years or more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $10,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $20,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $75,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits a violation of this subparagraph or of section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title after two or more prior convictions for a felony drug offense have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory term of life imprisonment without release and fined in accordance with the preceding sentence. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 10 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.
(B) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—
(i) 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;
(ii) 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—
(I) coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;
(II) cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;
(III) ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or
(IV) any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);
(iii) 28 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;
(iv) 10 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);
(v) 1 gram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);
(vi) 40 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N- [ 1- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;
(vii) 100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or
(viii) 5 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;
such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $5,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $25,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposed under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 8 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.
(C) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000), or 1 gram of flunitrazepam, except as provided in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (D), such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under the provisions of this subparagraph which provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment if death or serious bodily injury results, nor shall a person so sentenced be eligible for parole during the term of such a sentence.
(D) In the case of less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil, such person shall, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.
(E)
(i) Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), in the case of any controlled substance in schedule III, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 15 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.
(ii) If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.
(iii) Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.
(2) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule IV, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least one year in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.
(3) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule V, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than one year, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $100,000 if the defendant is an individual or $250,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 4 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $200,000 if the defendant is an individual or $500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph may, if there was a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of not more than 1 year, in addition to such term of imprisonment.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by distributing a small amount of marihuana for no remuneration shall be treated as provided in section 844 of this title and section 3607 of title 18.
(5) Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by cultivating or manufacturing a controlled substance on Federal property shall be imprisoned as provided in this subsection and shall be fined any amount not to exceed—
(A) the amount authorized in accordance with this section;
(B) the amount authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18;
(C) $500,000 if the defendant is an individual; or
(D) $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual;
or both.
(6) Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section, or attempts to do so, and knowingly or intentionally uses a poison, chemical, or other hazardous substance on Federal land, and, by such use—
(A) creates a serious hazard to humans, wildlife, or domestic animals,
(B) degrades or harms the environment or natural resources, or
(C) pollutes an aquifer, spring, stream, river, or body of water,
shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.
(7) Penalties for distribution.—
(A) In general.— Whoever, with intent to commit a crime of violence, as defined in section 16 of title 18 (including rape), against an individual, violates subsection (a) of this section by distributing a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue to that individual without that individual’s knowledge, shall be imprisoned not more than 20 years and fined in accordance with title 18.
(B) Definition.— For purposes of this paragraph, the term “without that individual’s knowledge” means that the individual is unaware that a substance with the ability to alter that individual’s ability to appraise conduct or to decline participation in or communicate unwillingness to participate in conduct is administered to the individual.
(c) Offenses involving listed chemicals
Any person who knowingly or intentionally—
(1) possesses a listed chemical with intent to manufacture a controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter;
(2) possesses or distributes a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter; or
(3) with the intent of causing the evasion of the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title, or the regulations issued under that section, receives or distributes a reportable amount of any listed chemical in units small enough so that the making of records or filing of reports under that section is not required;
shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical, or both.
(d) Boobytraps on Federal property; penalties; “boobytrap” defined
(1) Any person who assembles, maintains, places, or causes to be placed a boobytrap on Federal property where a controlled substance is being manufactured, distributed, or dispensed shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not more than 10 years or fined under title 18, or both.
(2) If any person commits such a violation after 1 or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years or fined under title 18, or both.
(3) For the purposes of this subsection, the term “boobytrap” means any concealed or camouflaged device designed to cause bodily injury when triggered by any action of any unsuspecting person making contact with the device. Such term includes guns, ammunition, or explosive devices attached to trip wires or other triggering mechanisms, sharpened stakes, and lines or wires with hooks attached.
(e) Ten-year injunction as additional penalty
In addition to any other applicable penalty, any person convicted of a felony violation of this section relating to the receipt, distribution, manufacture, exportation, or importation of a listed chemical may be enjoined from engaging in any transaction involving a listed chemical for not more than ten years.
(f) Wrongful distribution or possession of listed chemicals
(1) Whoever knowingly distributes a listed chemical in violation of this subchapter (other than in violation of a recordkeeping or reporting requirement of section 830 of this title) shall, except to the extent that paragraph (12), (13), or (14) of section 842 (a) of this title applies, be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
(2) Whoever possesses any listed chemical, with knowledge that the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title have not been adhered to, if, after such knowledge is acquired, such person does not take immediate steps to remedy the violation shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.
(g) Internet sales of date rape drugs
(1) Whoever knowingly uses the Internet to distribute a date rape drug to any person, knowing or with reasonable cause to believe that—
(A) the drug would be used in the commission of criminal sexual conduct; or
(B) the person is not an authorized purchaser;
shall be fined under this subchapter or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.
(2) As used in this subsection:
(A) The term “date rape drug” means—
(i) gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) or any controlled substance analogue of GHB, including gamma butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4–butanediol;
(ii) ketamine;
(iii) flunitrazepam; or
(iv) any substance which the Attorney General designates, pursuant to the rulemaking procedures prescribed by section 553 of title 5, to be used in committing rape or sexual assault.
The Attorney General is authorized to remove any substance from the list of date rape drugs pursuant to the same rulemaking authority.
(B) The term “authorized purchaser” means any of the following persons, provided such person has acquired the controlled substance in accordance with this chapter:
(i) A person with a valid prescription that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose in the usual course of professional practice that is based upon a qualifying medical relationship by a practitioner registered by the Attorney General. A “qualifying medical relationship” means a medical relationship that exists when the practitioner has conducted at least 1 medical evaluation with the authorized purchaser in the physical presence of the practitioner, without regard to whether portions of the evaluation are conducted by other heath  [1] professionals. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to imply that 1 medical evaluation demonstrates that a prescription has been issued for a legitimate medical purpose within the usual course of professional practice.
(ii) Any practitioner or other registrant who is otherwise authorized by their registration to dispense, procure, purchase, manufacture, transfer, distribute, import, or export the substance under this chapter.
(iii) A person or entity providing documentation that establishes the name, address, and business of the person or entity and which provides a legitimate purpose for using any “date rape drug” for which a prescription is not required.
(3) The Attorney General is authorized to promulgate regulations for record-keeping and reporting by persons handling 1,4–butanediol in order to implement and enforce the provisions of this section. Any record or report required by such regulations shall be considered a record or report required under this chapter.
(h) Offenses involving dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet
(1) In general
It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally—
(A) deliver, distribute, or dispense a controlled substance by means of the Internet, except as authorized by this subchapter; or
(B) aid or abet (as such terms are used in section 2 of title 18) any activity described in subparagraph (A) that is not authorized by this subchapter.
(2) Examples
Examples of activities that violate paragraph (1) include, but are not limited to, knowingly or intentionally—
(A) delivering, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance by means of the Internet by an online pharmacy that is not validly registered with a modification authorizing such activity as required by section 823 (f) of this title (unless exempt from such registration);
(B) writing a prescription for a controlled substance for the purpose of delivery, distribution, or dispensation by means of the Internet in violation of section 829(e) of the title;
(C) serving as an agent, intermediary, or other entity that causes the Internet to be used to bring together a buyer and seller to engage in the dispensing of a controlled substance in a manner not authorized by sections  [2] 823(f) or 829(e) of this title;
(D) offering to fill a prescription for a controlled substance based solely on a consumer’s completion of an online medical questionnaire; and
(E) making a material false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation in a notification or declaration under subsection (d) or (e), respectively, of section 831 of this title.
(3) Inapplicability
(A) This subsection does not apply to—
(i) the delivery, distribution, or dispensation of controlled substances by nonpractitioners to the extent authorized by their registration under this subchapter;
(ii) the placement on the Internet of material that merely advocates the use of a controlled substance or includes pricing information without attempting to propose or facilitate an actual transaction involving a controlled substance; or
(iii) except as provided in subparagraph (B), any activity that is limited to—
(I) the provision of a telecommunications service, or of an Internet access service or Internet information location tool (as those terms are defined in section 231 of title 47); or
(II) the transmission, storage, retrieval, hosting, formatting, or translation (or any combination thereof) of a communication, without selection or alteration of the content of the communication, except that deletion of a particular communication or material made by another person in a manner consistent with section 230 (c) of title 47 shall not constitute such selection or alteration of the content of the communication.
(B) The exceptions under subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph (A)(iii) shall not apply to a person acting in concert with a person who violates paragraph (1).
(4) Knowing or intentional violation
Any person who knowingly or intentionally violates this subsection shall be sentenced in accordance with subsection (b).


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “health”.

[2]  So in original. Probably should be “section”.

Source

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, § 401,Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 95–633, title II, § 201,Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3774; Pub. L. 96–359, § 8(c),Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1194; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§ 224(a), 502, 503 (b)(1), (2),Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030, 2068, 2070; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§ 1002, 1003 (a), 1004 (a), 1005 (a), 1103, title XV, § 15005,Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–2, 3207–5, 3207–6, 3207–11, 3207–192; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§ 6055, 6254(h), 6452(a), 6470(g), (h), 6479,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4318, 4367, 4371, 4378, 4381; Pub. L. 101–647, title X, § 1002(e), title XII, § 1202, title XXXV, § 3599K,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4828, 4830, 4932; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, § 90105(a), (c), title XVIII, § 180201(b)(2)(A),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1987, 1988, 2047; Pub. L. 104–237, title II, § 206(a), title III, § 302(a),Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3103, 3105; Pub. L. 104–305, § 2(a), (b)(1),Oct. 13, 1996, 110 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 105–277, div. E, § 2(a),Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–759; Pub. L. 106–172, §§ 3(b)(1), 5 (b), 9,Feb. 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 9, 10, 13; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, § 3005(a), title IV, § 4002(d)(2)(A),Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1805, 1809; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §§ 711(f)(1)(B), 732,Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 262, 270; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, § 201,July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 611; Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(e), (f),Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4828, 4829; Pub. L. 111–220, §§ 2(a), 4 (a),Aug. 3, 2010, 124 Stat. 2372.)
References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (2), (f)(1), (g)(1), and (h)(1), (3)(A)(i), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, and is popularly known as the “Controlled Substances Act”. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see second paragraph of Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.
Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in section 812 (c) of this title.
Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original “title III”, meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285. Part A of title III comprises subchapter II of this chapter. For classification of Part B, consisting of sections 1101 to 1105 of title III, see Tables.
Section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prohibition Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), is section 3(a)(1)(B) ofPub. L. 106–172, which is set out in a note under section 812 of this title.
This chapter, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B), (3), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1236. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–220, § 4(a)(1), in concluding provisions, substituted “$10,000,000” for “$4,000,000”, “$50,000,000” for “$10,000,000”, “$20,000,000” for “$8,000,000”, and “$75,000,000” for “$20,000,000”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 111–220, § 2(a)(1), substituted “280 grams” for “50 grams”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–220, § 4(a)(2), in concluding provisions, substituted “$5,000,000” for “$2,000,000”, “$25,000,000” for “$5,000,000”, “$8,000,000” for “$4,000,000”, and “$50,000,000” for “$10,000,000”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 111–220, § 2(a)(2), substituted “28 grams” for “5 grams”.
2008—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(e)(1)(A), struck out “or in the case of any controlled substance in schedule III (other than gamma hydroxybutyric acid), or 30 milligrams of flunitrazepam” after “hashish oil”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(e)(1)(B), added subpar. (E).
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(e)(2), substituted “5 years” for “3 years”, “10 years” for “6 years”, and “after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final,” for “after one or more prior convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final,”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(e)(3), substituted “4 years” for “2 years” and “after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final,” for “after one or more convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a crime under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final,” and inserted at end “Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph may, if there was a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of not more than 1 year, in addition to such term of imprisonment.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–425, § 3(f), added subsec. (h).
2006—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–177, § 732, inserted “or manufacturing” after “cultivating” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, § 711(f)(1)(B), inserted “, except to the extent that paragraph (12), (13), or (14) of section 842 (a) of this title applies,” after “shall”.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–248added subsec. (g).
2002—Subsec. (b)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 107–273, § 3005(a), substituted “Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence” for “Any sentence” in concluding provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 107–273, § 3005(a), substituted “Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence” for “Any sentence”.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–273, § 4002(d)(2)(A)(i), substituted “or fined under title 18, or both” for “and shall be fined not more than $10,000”.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–273, § 4002(d)(2)(A)(ii), substituted “or fined under title 18, or both” for “and shall be fined not more than $20,000”.
2000—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–172, § 3(b)(1)(A), inserted “gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000),” after “schedule I or II,” in first sentence.
Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 106–172, § 3(b)(1)(B), substituted “(other than gamma hydroxybutyric acid), or 30” for “, or 30”.
Subsec. (b)(7)(A). Pub. L. 106–172, § 5(b), inserted “or controlled substance analogue” after “distributing a controlled substance”.
Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 106–172, § 9, redesignatedsubsecs. (d) to (g) as (c) to (f), respectively.
1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–277in subpar. (A)(viii) substituted “50 grams” and “500 grams” for “100 grams” and “1 kilogram”, respectively, and in subpar. (B)(viii) substituted “5 grams” and “50 grams” for “10 grams” and “100 grams”, respectively.
1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–305, § 2(b)(1)(A), inserted “, or 1 gram of flunitrazepam,” after “schedule I or II”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–305, § 2(b)(1)(B), inserted “or 30 milligrams of flunitrazepam,” after “schedule III,”.
Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–305, § 2(a), added par. (7).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–237, § 302(a), in concluding provisions, substituted “not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical,” for “not more than 10 years,”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–237, § 206(a), inserted “manufacture, exportation,” after “distribution,” and struck out “regulated” after “engaging in any”.
1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, § 180201(b)(2)(A), inserted “849,” before “859,” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–322, §§ 90105(c), 180201(b)(2)(A), in concluding provisions, inserted “849,” before “859,” and struck out “For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘felony drug offense’ means an offense that is a felony under any provision of this subchapter or any other Federal law that prohibits or restricts conduct relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances or a felony under any law of a State or a foreign country that prohibits or restricts conduct relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances.” before “Any sentence under this subparagraph”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–322, § 90105(a), in sentence in concluding provisions beginning “If any person commits”, substituted “a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final” for “one or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–322, § 90105(a), in sentence beginning “If any person commits”, substituted “a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final” for “one or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–322, § 90105(a), in sentence beginning “If any person commits”, substituted “a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final” for “one or more prior convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final”.
1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, § 1002(e)(1), substituted “section 859, 860, or 861” for “section 845, 845a, or 845b” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–647, § 1002(e)(1), substituted “section 859, 860, or 861” for “section 845, 845a, or 845b” in concluding provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 101–647, § 3599K, substituted “any of the substances” for “any of the substance”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(viii). Pub. L. 101–647, § 1202, substituted “or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine” for “or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 101–647, § 3599K, substituted “any of the substances” for “any of the substance”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647, § 1002(e)(2), directed amendment of subsec. (c) by substituting “section 859, 860, or 861 of this title” for “section 845, 845a, or 845b of this title”. Subsec. (c) was previously repealed by Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a)(2), as renumbered by Pub. L. 99–570, § 1005(a), effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment. See 1984 Amendment note and Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note below.
1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–690, §§ 6452(a), 6470(g), 6479(1), inserted “, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight” in cl. (vii), added cl. (viii), substituted “a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final” for “one or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final” in second sentence, and added provisions relating to sentencing for a person who violates this subpar. or section 485, 485a, or 485b of this title after two or more prior convictions for a felony drug offense have become final and defining “felony drug offense”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–690, §§ 6470(h), 6479(2), inserted “, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight” in cl. (vii) and added cl. (viii).
Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 100–690, § 6479(3), substituted “50 or more marihuana plants” for “100 or more marihuana plants”.
Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–690, § 6254(h), added par. (6).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–690, § 6055(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Any person who knowingly or intentionally—
“(1) possesses any piperidine with intent to manufacture phencyclidine except as authorized by this subchapter, or
“(2) possesses any piperidine knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the piperidine will be used to manufacture phencyclidine except as authorized by this subchapter,
shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.”
Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 100–690, § 6055(b), added subsecs. (f) and (g).
1986—Pub. L. 99–570, § 1005(a), amended Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a). See 1984 Amendment note below.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1103(a), substituted “, 845a, or 845b” for “or 845a” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1002(2), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—
“(i) 100 grams or more of a controlled substance in schedule I or II which is a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of a narcotic drug other than a narcotic drug consisting of—
“(I) coca leaves;
“(II) a compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves; or
“(III) a substance chemically identical thereto;
“(ii) a kilogram or more of any other controlled substance in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug;
“(iii) 500 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP); or
“(iv) 5 grams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);
such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years, a fine of not more than $250,000, or both. If any person commits such a violation after one or more prior convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 40 years, a fine of not more than $500,000, or both”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1002(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “In the case of a controlled substance in schedule I or II except as provided in subparagraphs (A) and (C),, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 15 years, a fine of not more than $125,000, or both. If any person commits such a violation after one or more prior convictions of him for an offense punishable under this paragraph, or for a felony under any other provision of this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter or other law of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years, a fine of not more than $250,000, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a special parole term of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a special parole term of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.”
Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1002(2), added subpar. (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (D).
Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1004(a), substituted “term of supervised release” for “special parole term” in two places.
Pub. L. 99–570, §§ 1002(1), 1003 (a)(1), redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D), substituted “a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $50,000” and “a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $100,000”, and inserted “except in the case of 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight,”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1004(a), substituted “term of supervised release” for “special parole term” in two places.
Pub. L. 99–570, § 1003(a)(2), substituted “a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $25,000” and “a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $50,000”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1003(a)(3), substituted “a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $100,000 if the defendant is an individual or $250,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $10,000” and “a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $200,000 if the defendant is an individual or $500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $20,000”.
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1003(a)(4), which directed the substitution of “1(D)” for “1(C)” was executed by substituting “(1)(D)” for “(1)(C)” as the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1003(a)(5), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by cultivating a controlled substance on Federal property shall be fined not more than—
“(A) $500,000 if such person is an individual; and
“(B) $1,000,000 if such person is not an individual.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1004(a), substituted “term of supervised release” for “special parole term” wherever appearing, effective Nov. 1, 1987, the effective date of the repeal of subsec. (c) by Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a)(2). See 1984 Amendment note below.
Pub. L. 99–570, § 1103(b), substituted “, 845a, or 845b” for “845a” in two places.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–570, § 1003(a)(6), substituted “a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual” for “a fine of not more than $15,000”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–570, § 15005, added subsec. (e).
1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, § 503(b)(1), inserted reference to section 845a of this title in provisions preceding par. (1)(A).
Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a)(1)–(3), (5), which directed amendment of this subsection effective Nov. 1, 1987 (see section 235(a)(1) ofPub. L. 98–473set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure) was repealed by Pub. L. 99–570, § 1005(a), and the remaining pars. (4) and (6) of Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a), were redesignated as pars. (1) and (2), respectively.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(1)(A), added subpar. (A). Former subpar. (A) redesignated (B).
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(1)(A), (B), redesignated former subpar. (A) as (B), substituted “except as provided in subparagraphs (A) and (C),” for “which is a narcotic drug”, “$125,000” for “$25,000”, and “$250,000” for “$50,000”, and inserted references to laws of a State and a foreign country. Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).
Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(1)(A), (C), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), substituted “less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil” for “a controlled substance in schedule I or II which is not a narcotic drug”, “and (5)” for “, (5), and (6)”, “$50,000” for “$15,000”, and “$100,000” for “$30,000”, and inserted references to laws of a State and a foreign country.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(2), substituted “$25,000” for “$10,000” and “$50,000” for “$20,000”, and inserted references to laws of a State or of a foreign country.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(3), substituted “$10,000” for “$5,000” and “$20,000” for “$10,000”, and inserted references to laws of a State or of a foreign country.
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(4), substituted “(1)(C)” for “(1)(B)”.
Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a)(1), as renumbered by Pub. L. 99–570, § 1005(a), substituted “in section 844 of this title and section 3607 of title 18” for “in subsections (a) and (b) ofsection 844 of this title”.
Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(5), (6), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which related to penalties for manufacturing, etc., phencyclidine.
Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 98–473, § 502(5), struck out par. (6) which related to penalties for violations involving a quantity of marihuana exceeding 1,000 pounds.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, § 224(a)(2), as renumbered by Pub. L. 99–570, § 1005(a), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “A special parole term imposed under this section or section 845, 845a, or 845b of this title may be revoked if its terms and conditions are violated. In such circumstances the original term of imprisonment shall be increased by the period of the special parole term and the resulting new term of imprisonment shall not be diminished by the time which was spent on special parole. A person whose special parole term has been revoked may be required to serve all or part of the remainder of the new term of imprisonment. A special parole term provided for in this section or section 845, 845a, or 845b of this title shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other parole provided for by law.”
Pub. L. 98–473, § 503(b)(2), inserted reference to section 845a of this title in two places.
1980—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 96–359, § 8(c)(1), inserted reference to par. (6) of this subsection.
Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 96–359, § 8(c)(2), added par. (6).
1978—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–633, § 201(1), inserted “, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection,” after “such person shall”.
Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 95–633, § 201(2), added par. (5).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–633, § 201(3), added subsec. (d).
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–425effective 180 days after Oct. 15, 2008, except as otherwise provided, see section 3(j) ofPub. L. 110–425, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 6055 ofPub. L. 100–690effective 120 days after Nov. 18, 1988, see section 6061 ofPub. L. 100–690, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–570, title I, § 1004(b),Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–6, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 845, 845a, 960, and 962 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of section 3583 of title 18, United States Code [Nov. 1, 1987].”
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 224(a) ofPub. L. 98–473effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) ofPub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633effective Nov. 10, 1978, see section 203(a) ofPub. L. 95–633set out as an Effective Date note under section 830 of this title.
Repeals

Pub. L. 96–359, § 8(b),Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1194, repealed section 203(d) ofPub. L. 95–633, which had provided for the repeal of subsec. (d) of this section effective Jan. 1, 1981.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

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21 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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