10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, unfired hot water storage tanks, and commercial heat pump water heaters.

prev | next
§ 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, unfired hot water storage tanks, and commercial heat pump water heaters.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart G, and of subparts J through M of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in section 340 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 6311.

Air-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes indoor or outdoor air as the heat source.

Basic model means all water heaters, hot water supply boilers, or unfired hot water storage tanks manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., gas or oil) and that have essentially identical electrical, physical and functional characteristics that affect energy efficiency.

Coefficient of performance (COPh) means the dimensionless ratio of the rate of useful heat transfer gained by the water (expressed in Btu/h), to the rate of electric power consumed during operation (expressed in Btu/h).

Commercial heat pump water heater (CHPWH) means a water heater (including all ancillary equipment such as fans, blowers, pumps, storage tanks, piping, and controls, as applicable) that uses a refrigeration cycle, such as vapor compression, to transfer heat from a low-temperature source to a higher-temperature sink for the purpose of heating potable water, and has a rated electric power input greater than 12 kW. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to, air-source heat pump water heaters, water-source heat pump water heaters, and direct geo-exchange heat pump water heaters.

Direct geo-exchange commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes the earth as a heat source and allows for direct exchange of heat between the earth and the refrigerant in the evaporator coils.

Flow-activated instantaneous water heater means an instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler that activates the burner or heating element only if heated water is drawn from the unit.

Fuel input rate means the maximum measured rate at which gas-fired or oil-fired commercial water heating equipment uses energy as determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.106 of this part.

Ground-source closed-loop commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes a fluid circulated through a closed piping loop as a medium to transfer heat from the ground to the refrigerant in the evaporator. The piping loop may be buried inside the ground in horizontal trenches or vertical bores, or submerged in a surface water body.

Ground water-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes ground water as the heat source.

Hot water supply boiler means a packaged boiler (defined in § 431.82 of this part) that is industrial equipment and that:

(1) Has a rated input from 300,000 Btu/h to 12,500,000 Btu/h and of at least 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Is suitable for heating potable water; and

(3) Meets either or both of the following conditions:

(i) It has the temperature and pressure controls necessary for heating potable water for purposes other than space heating; or

(ii) The manufacturer's product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation instructions indicate that the boiler's intended uses include heating potable water for purposes other than space heating.

Indoor water-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes indoor water as the heat source.

Instantaneous water heater means a water heater that uses gas, oil, or electricity, including:

(1) Gas-fired instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 200,000 Btu/h and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Oil-fired instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 210,000 Btu/h and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water; and

(3) Electric instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 12 kW and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water.

Rated input means the maximum rate at which commercial water heating equipment is rated to use energy as specified on the nameplate.

R-value means the thermal resistance of insulating material as determined using ASTM C 177-13 or C 518-15 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105) and expressed in ( °F·ft 2·h/Btu).

Residential-duty commercial water heater means any gas-fired storage, oil-fired storage, or electric instantaneous commercial water heater that meets the following conditions:

(1) For models requiring electricity, uses single-phase external power supply;

(2) Is not designed to provide outlet hot water at temperatures greater than 180 °F; and

(3) Does not meet any of the following criteria:

Water heater type Indicator of non-residential application
Gas-fired Storage Rated input >105 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume >120 gallons.
Oil-fired Storage Rated input >140 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume >120 gallons.
Electric Instantaneous Rated input >58.6 kW; Rated storage volume >2 gallons.

Standby loss means:

(1) For electric commercial water heating equipment (not including commercial heat pump water heaters), the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percent per hour (%/h) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature and determined in accordance with appendix B or D to subpart G of part 431 (as applicable), denoted by the term “S”; or

(2) For gas-fired and oil-fired commercial water heating equipment, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) based on a 70 °F temperature differential between stored water and ambient room temperature and determined in accordance with appendix A or C to subpart G of part 431 (as applicable), denoted by the term “SL.”

Storage-type instantaneous water heater means an instantaneous water heater that includes a storage tank with a storage volume greater than or equal to 10 gallons.

Storage water heater means a water heater that uses gas, oil, or electricity to heat and store water within the appliance at a thermostatically-controlled temperature for delivery on demand, including:

(1) Gas-fired storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 75,000 Btu/h and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Oil-fired storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 105,000 Btu/h and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water; and

(3) Electric storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 12 kW and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water.

Tank surface area means, for the purpose of determining portions of a tank requiring insulation, those areas of a storage tank, including hand holes and manholes, in its uninsulated or pre-insulated state, that do not have pipe penetrations or tank supports attached.

Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water supply boiler means the ratio of the heat transferred to the water flowing through the water heater to the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test procedure prescribed in this subpart.

Unfired hot water storage tank means a tank used to store water that is heated externally, and that is industrial equipment.

[ 69 FR 61983, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 78 FR 79599, Dec. 31, 2013; 79 FR 40586, July 11, 2014; 81 FR 79321, Nov. 10, 2016]
The section you are viewing is cited by the following CFR sections.