10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20, Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage
For each radionuclide table 1 indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 µm and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times of less than 10 days for D, for W from 10 to 100 days, and for Y greater than 100 days. The class (D, W, or Y) given in the column headed “Class” applies only to the inhalation ALIs and DACs given in table 1, columns 2 and 3. Table 2 provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table 3 provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewer systems.
The values in tables 1, 2, and 3 are presented in the computer “E” notation. In this notation a value of 6E−02 represents a value of 6 × 10−2 or 0.06, 6E 2 represents 6 × 10 2 or 600, and 6E 0 represents 6 × 10 0 or 6.
Note that the columns in table 1, of this appendix captioned “Oral Ingestion ALI,” “Inhalation ALI,” and “DAC,” are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.
The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of a given radionuclide by “Reference Man” which would result in either (1) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of weighting factor in § 20.1003. The non-stochastic ALIs were derived to avoid non-stochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.
A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the “remainder” category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following parts of the GI tract - stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine - are to be treated as four separate organs.
Note that the dose equivalents for extremities (hands and forearms, feet and lower legs), skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.
When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone, is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. (Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used: LLI wall = lower large intestine wall; St. wall = stomach wall; Blad wall = bladder wall; and Bone surf = bone surface.)
The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and non-stochastic ALIs, will ensure that non-stochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the non-stochastic ALI is limiting, use of that non-stochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 50-rem dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose to that organ (not the effective dose). For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity (i.e., Σ (intake (in µCi) of each radionuclide/ALIns) <1.0). If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd then this sum must be less than l−(Hd/50) instead of being <1.0.
The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by: DAC = ALI(in µCi)/(2000 hours per working year × 60 minutes/hour × 2 × 10 4 ml per minute) = [ALI/2.4 × 10 9] µCi/ml, where 2 × 10 4 ml is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by “Reference Man” under working conditions of “light work.”
The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. Derived air concentrations based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.
The ALI and DAC values relate to exposure to the single radionuclide named, but also include contributions from the in-growth of any daughter radionuclide produced in the body by the decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.
The value of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external radiation (see § 20.1202). When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications (i.e., Class D, Class W, or Class Y) of the same radionuclide, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.
It should be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radioisotopes. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.
The columns in table 2 of this appendix captioned “Effluents,” “Air,” and “Water,” are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of § 20.1302. The concentration values given in columns 1 and 2 of table 2 are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (50 millirem or 0.5 millisieverts).
Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because non-stochastic effects are presumed not to occur at the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the non-stochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in table 2. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in appendix B to §§ 20.1-20.601.
The air concentration values listed in table 2, column 1, were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 × 10 9 ml, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of 300. The factor of 300 includes the following components: a factor of 50 to relate the 5-rem annual occupational dose limit to the 0.1-rem limit for members of the public, a factor of 3 to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of 2 to adjust the occupational values (derived for adults) so that they are applicable to other age groups.
For those radionuclides for which submersion (external dose) is limiting, the occupational DAC in table 1, column 3, was divided by 219. The factor of 219 is composed of a factor of 50, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for 2,000 hours per year to full-time exposure (8,760 hours per year). Note that an additional factor of 2 for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.
The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 × 10 7. The factor of 7.3 × 10 7 (ml) includes the following components: the factors of 50 and 2 described above and a factor of 7.3 × 10 5 (ml) which is the annual water intake of “Reference Man.”
Note 2 of this appendix provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings (including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and sewerage) require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.
The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewers are applicable to the provisions in § 20.2003. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 × 10 6 (ml). The factor of 7.3 × 10 6 (ml) is composed of a factor of 7.3 × 10 5 (ml), the annual water intake by “Reference Man,” and a factor of 10, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by a reference man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.5 rem.
List of Elements